Maps: Where They Blow

Canadian Wildlife - - FEATURES - Il­lus­tra­tion by Cory Proulx Balaenopte­ra mus­cu­lus Balaenopte­ra physalus Balaenopte­ra bo­re­alis

Cana­dian wa­ters are rich in whale species, with more than 30 dif­fer­ent types in­hab­it­ing the wa­ters off our 200,000 kilo­me­tres of coast­line. Even mem­bers of the same species found in dif­fer­ent lo­ca­tions have de­vel­oped dis­tinct be­hav­iours. Vir­tu­ally ev­ery one is threat­ened or en­dan­gered 1. KILLER WHALE

Orci­nus orca Lo­ca­tion: North­east Pa­cific, north­ern res­i­dent Pop­u­la­tion (2017): 309 Risk sta­tus: threat­ened Threats: shrink­ing salmon stock, pol­lu­tion, noise; nat­u­ral threats in­clude their small size and slow growth

2. KILLER WHALE

Orci­nus orca Lo­ca­tion: North­east Pa­cific, south­ern res­i­dent (see ar­ti­cle page 22) Pop­u­la­tion (2018): 74 Risk sta­tus: en­dan­gered Threats: shrink­ing salmon stock, pol­lu­tion, noise, ship strikes, cli­mate change; nat­u­ral threats in­clude in­breed­ing, late sex­ual ma­tu­rity, low birth rates

3. KILLER WHALE

Orci­nus orca Lo­ca­tion: North­east Pa­cific, off­shore Pop­u­la­tion (2013): 300 Risk sta­tus: threat­ened Threats: prey de­cline (dog­fish, chi­nook salmon and Pa­cific hal­ibut), con­tam­i­nants and toxic spills, chronic and acute acous­tic dis­tur­bances; of­ten gath­ers in large groups of 120 or more, so oil spills and un­der­wa­ter ex­plo­sions are par­tic­u­larly dan­ger­ous

4. KILLER WHALE

Orci­nus orca Lo­ca­tion: North­east Pa­cific, Bigg’s/tran­sient Pop­u­la­tion (2009): 122 (ma­ture in­di­vid­u­als) Risk sta­tus: threat­ened Threats: low re­pro­duc­tive rate (one calf ev­ery five years), acous­tic dis­tur­bances, pol­lu­tants, toxic spills, col­li­sions with ves­sels, de­creased prey avail­abil­ity

5. BLUE WHALE

Lo­ca­tion: Pa­cific Pop­u­la­tion: un­known Risk sta­tus: en­dan­gered Threats: col­li­sions with ships, en­tan­gle­ment in fish­ing gear, pol­lu­tion

6. RIGHT WHALE

Eubal­aena japon­ica Lo­ca­tion: North Pa­cific Pop­u­la­tion: 20 to 30 (not sighted in Cana­dian wa­ters in 50 years) Risk sta­tus: en­dan­gered Threats: ves­sel strikes, en­tan­gle­ment, noise pol­lu­tion

7. GREY WHALE

Eschrichti­us ro­bus­tus Lo­ca­tion: East­ern North Pa­cific Pop­u­la­tion (2016): 20,000 Risk sta­tus: spe­cial con­cern Threats: col­li­sions with ships, en­tan­gle­ment in fish­ing gear; coastal in­dus­tries such as salt ex­trac­tion, oil ex­plo­ration, min­ing can lead to toxic spills and noise pol­lu­tion that ruin breed­ing and feed­ing habi­tats

8. HUMP­BACK WHALE

Me­gaptera no­vaean­gliae Lo­ca­tion: North Pa­cific & North At­lantic Risk sta­tus: spe­cial con­cern Threats: ves­sel strikes, en­tan­gle­ment, toxic spills, de­clin­ing prey, noise pol­lu­tion

9. FIN WHALE

Lo­ca­tion: Pa­cific Pop­u­la­tion (2004): 2,500 Risk sta­tus: threat­ened Threats: ves­sel strikes, acute and chronic noise pol­lu­tion, en­tan­gle­ment in fish­ing gear, pol­lu­tion, cli­mate change

10. SEI WHALE

Lo­ca­tion: Pa­cific Pop­u­la­tion: af­ter no re­ported sight­ings in Cana­dian wa­ters in more than 50 years, 5 were spot­ted in sum­mer 2018 Risk sta­tus: en­dan­gered Threats: hunted un­til 1975, the species has not been able to re­cover since; threats to re­main­ing in­di­vid­u­als in­clude ves­sel strikes, noise, en­tan­gle­ments, cli­mate change

11. COM­MON MINKE WHALE

Balaenopte­ra acu­toros­trata Lo­ca­tion: North Pa­cific Pop­u­la­tion (2005): 475 Risk sta­tus: not at risk Threats: whal­ing, en­tan­gle­ment, noise, ves­sel strikes

12. KILLER WHALE

Orci­nus orca Lo­ca­tion: Northwest At­lantic and east­ern Arc­tic Pop­u­la­tion (2015): <1,000 ma­ture in­di­vid­u­als Risk sta­tus: spe­cial con­cern Threats: acous­tic dis­tur­bances, con­tam­i­nants, toxic spills; in the Arc­tic killer whales are hunted

13. NORTH­ERN BOT­TLENOSE WHALE

Hyper­oodon am­pul­la­tus Lo­ca­tion: Davis Strait­baf­fin Bay-labrador Sea Pop­u­la­tion: un­known Risk sta­tus: spe­cial con­cern Threats: acous­tic dis­tur­bances, con­tam­i­nants, toxic spills

14. NORTH­ERN BOT­TLENOSE WHALE

Hyper­oodon am­pul­la­tus Lo­ca­tion: Sco­tian Shelf Pop­u­la­tion (2011): 164 Risk sta­tus: en­dan­gered Threats: en­tan­gle­ment, oil and gas ac­tiv­i­ties, acous­tic dis­tur­bance, con­tam­i­nants, and ves­sel strikes; an­thro­pogenic (hu­man-caused) noise is of par­tic­u­lar con­cern be­cause north­ern bot­tlenose whales are found near oil and gas fields to the south of Nova Sco­tia

15. BEL­UGA WHALE

Lo­ca­tion: Cum­ber­land Sound Pop­u­la­tion (2017): <1,000 Risk Sta­tus: threat­ened Threats: acous­tic dis­tur­bance, cli­mate change, pol­lu­tion, pre­da­tion by killer whales and po­lar bears

16. BEL­UGA WHALE

Del­phi­napterus leu­cas Lo­ca­tion: Baf­fin Bay, east­ern High Arc­tic Pop­u­la­tion: un­known Risk sta­tus: spe­cial con­cern Threats: over­ex­ploita­tion, cli­mate change, pol­lu­tion

17. BEL­UGA WHALE

Lo­ca­tion: East­ern Hud­son Bay Pop­u­la­tion: un­known Risk sta­tus: en­dan­gered Threats: over­hunt­ing, habi­tat al­ter­ations (e.g., river damming), cli­mate change, noise pol­lu­tion

18. BEL­UGA WHALE

Lo­ca­tion: St. Lawrence Es­tu­ary Pop­u­la­tion (2014): 583 ma­ture in­di­vid­u­als (est.) Risk sta­tus: en­dan­gered Threats: habi­tat loss and degra­da­tion, strikes by small ves­sels, en­tan­gle­ment, prey com­pe­ti­tion with com­mer­cial fish­eries, chem­i­cal and bi­o­log­i­cal con­tam­i­na­tion from heavy marine traf­fic

19. BEL­UGA WHALE

Del­phi­napterus leu­cas Lo­ca­tion: Un­gava Bay Pop­u­la­tion (2014): <100 Risk sta­tus: en­dan­gered Threats: hunt­ing, changes to habi­tats, noise, dredg­ing, ship­ping and other in­dus­trial ac­tiv­ity

20. BEL­UGA WHALE

Lo­ca­tion: West­ern Hud­son Bay Pop­u­la­tion: un­known Risk sta­tus: spe­cial con­cern Threats: over­hunt­ing, cli­mate change

21. BLUE WHALE

Balaenopte­ra mus­cu­lus Lo­ca­tion: At­lantic Pop­u­la­tion (2014): <250 ma­ture in­di­vid­u­als Risk sta­tus: en­dan­gered Threats: noise, food sup­ply, pol­lu­tion, ship strikes, whale-watch­ing

22. BOW­HEAD WHALE

Balaena mys­tice­tus Lo­ca­tion: Ber­ing–chukchi– Beau­fort Pop­u­la­tion (2009): >10,000 Risk sta­tus: spe­cial con­cern Threats: cli­mate change, dis­tur­bance from ships, off­shore oil and gas de­vel­op­ment, hunt­ing

23. BOW­HEAD WHALE

Balaena mys­tice­tus Lo­ca­tion: East­ern Canada–west Green­land Pop­u­la­tion (2009): 6,000 Risk sta­tus: spe­cial con­cern Threats: cli­mate change, dis­tur­bance from ship­ping, off­shore oil and gas de­vel­op­ment

24. FIN WHALE

Lo­ca­tion: At­lantic Pop­u­la­tion: un­known Risk sta­tus: spe­cial con­cern Threats: noise from nav­i­ga­tion, seis­mic and sonar ex­plo­ration and de­vel­op­ment, de­cline in prey, toxic spills, ship strikes, cli­mate change

25. GREY WHALE

Lo­ca­tion: At­lantic Pop­u­la­tion: 0, since the 18th cen­tury Risk sta­tus: ex­tir­pated

26. RIGHT WHALE

Eubal­aena glacialis Lo­ca­tion: North At­lantic Pop­u­la­tion (2011): 411 Risk sta­tus: en­dan­gered Threats: ves­sel strikes, en­tan­gle­ment, noise pol­lu­tion

27. SOWERBY’S BEAKED WHALE

Me­so­plodon bidens Lo­ca­tion: At­lantic, Con­ti­nen­tal Slope Pop­u­la­tion: un­known Risk sta­tus: spe­cial con­cern Threats: en­tan­gle­ment; as a deep diver, it is ex­tremely vul­ner­a­ble to noise pol­lu­tion

28. COM­MON MINKE WHALE

Balaenopte­ra acu­toros­trata Lo­ca­tion: North At­lantic Pop­u­la­tion: plen­ti­ful Risk Sta­tus: not at risk Threats: whal­ing, en­tan­gle­ment, noise, ves­sel strikes; there was a sharp rise in un­ex­plained minke whale deaths in At­lantic Canada in 2018

29. SPERM WHALE

Lo­ca­tion: Northwest At­lantic, Northwest Pa­cific Pop­u­la­tion: plen­ti­ful Risk sta­tus: not at risk Threats: pol­lu­tion, en­tan­gle­ment, strikes

30. NAR­WHAL

Mon­odon mono­ceros Lo­ca­tion: Baf­fin Bay and Hud­son Bay Pop­u­la­tion (2014): 40,000 and 2,100 Risk sta­tus: spe­cial con­cern Threats: hunt­ing, pol­lu­tion, ship strikes (in­creas­ing traf­fic)

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