Taking Over Upper Canada
In what is now southern Ontario, the British made 15 Treaties between 1783 and 1812 to cement friendships with many different First Nations such as the Wendat and Anishinaabe. The Crown understood the First Nations were surrendering their lands — giving them up, sometimes keeping a small area to live on, known as a reserve. But First Nations had a different understanding. They believed they were agreeing to share their lands with the settlers, who needed to make a living, in exchange for protection of First Nations rights such as hunting and fishing, education, housing and more. This included the promise of annuities: annual gifts of a small amount of money. It is a symbolic gift of appreciation from the Crown. Canada is now responsible for this annual gift-giving.