Numbered Treaties, 1871- 1921
These 11 Treaties cover an enormous area of what is now Canada. The first and biggest issue came when the Canadian government took over Rupert’s Land — a region stretching from Alberta northeast to the area around Hudson Bay — from HBC in 1869. The government knew it had to reach agreements with First Nations so it could have the land for settlement, mining, farming and more. It wanted Treaties like the Robinson Treaties, but First Nations leaders held out for a better deal. They felt they were agreeing to share the land in exchange for things such as an annual gift of money, schools and teachers, farm tools, ammunition, land reserved just for their use and the right to hunt and fish. The government, on the other hand, saw the Treaties as huge surrenders of land that brought the First Nations under government control. The Numbered Treaties followed a similar format. However, some of the terms were different depending on the circumstances of the First Nations in different regions. Some promises have still not been fulfilled.