For millennia, the world’s philosophers have pondered the questions of human existence. For you, there’s a more pressing matter: this month’s quiz, which features some of the language they’ve used to articulate their thoughts.
1. solipsism—A: theory that the simplest explanation is the most likely one. B: slippery-slope argument. C: view that only the self can be known to exist.
2. altruistic—A: demonstrating great intellectual ability. B: showing unselfish concern for others. C: believing all things are true.
3. aestheticism—A: devotion to beauty. B: study of the human form. C: use of narcotics to seek truth.
4. innatism—A: notion that we can know nothing. B: acceptance of reason as the source of truth. C: assumption that the mind is born with ideas. 5. conatus—A: logical conclusion. B: natural tendency.
C: elaborate argument.
6. fallacy—A: change of opinion. B: mistaken idea.
C: unsolvable paradox.
7. empirical—A: verifiable by observation. B: designed to control vast populations. C: understood only through faith. 8. ad hominem—A: concerned with humanity’s achievements. B: directed at a person rather than their argument. C: long-winded.
9. absurdism—belief that A: time does not exist. B: the world is ending. C: the universe has no purpose.
10. hedonist—person who A: values the pursuit of pleasure above all else. B: believes happiness is unattainable. C: follows a doctrine blindly.
11. utopian—A: unoriginal. B: elegant in its simplicity. C: impossibly ideal. 12. consumerism—A: pursuit of joy through eating. B: preoccupation with the acquisition of goods. C: doctrine advocating free trade.
13. ipso facto—A: by that very fact. B: based on what was known at that time. C: from that perspective.
14. metaphysics—branch of philosophy that deals with A: desire. B: human suffering. C: the nature of reality.
15. ascetic—A: rigorously abstinent. B: stubbornly convinced. C: without moral principles.