TODAY IN HISTORY
In 1484, Pope Innocent VIII issued his Witch Bull, ordering an inquisition to systematically discover, torture and execute witches throughout Europe. It led to the ease with which witchcraft was charged and punished, even in the American colonies two centuries later. In 1776, the first scholastic fraternity in the United States, Phi Beta Kappa, was organized at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Va. In 1837, Lower Canada (now Quebec) was placed under martial law during a rebellion that had broken out largely over constitutional issues. The unrest was sparked in part by the control exercised by the largely English-speaking executive government over the elected — and predominantly French-speaking — legislative assembly.