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In 1484, Pope In­no­cent VIII is­sued his Witch Bull, or­der­ing an in­qui­si­tion to sys­tem­at­i­cally dis­cover, tor­ture and ex­e­cute witches through­out Europe. It led to the ease with which witch­craft was charged and pun­ished, even in the Amer­i­can colonies two cen­turies later. In 1776, the first scholas­tic fra­ter­nity in the United States, Phi Beta Kappa, was or­ga­nized at the Col­lege of Wil­liam and Mary in Wil­liams­burg, Va. In 1837, Lower Canada (now Que­bec) was placed un­der mar­tial law dur­ing a re­bel­lion that had bro­ken out largely over con­sti­tu­tional is­sues. The un­rest was sparked in part by the con­trol ex­er­cised by the largely English-speak­ing ex­ec­u­tive govern­ment over the elected — and pre­dom­i­nantly French-speak­ing — leg­isla­tive assem­bly.

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