Novem­ber is Di­a­betes Aware­ness Month

The Miracle - - Health -

Dif­fer­ences be­tween type 1 di­a­betes and type 2 di­a­betes

Di­a­betes is a chronic disease that oc­curs when the body ei­ther can­not pro­duce in­sulin or can­not prop­erly use the in­sulin it pro­duces. There are two main types of di­a­betes: type 1 and type 2. The causes and man­age­ment of these two types of di­a­betes are very dif­fer­ent.

What is type 1 di­a­betes?

Type 1 di­a­betes, formerly re­ferred to as ju­ve­nile di­a­betes, is a disease in which an in­di­vid­ual’s in­sulin-pro­duc­ing beta cells of the pan­creas get de­stroyed, caus­ing an ab­so­lute lack of in­sulin.

What is type 2 di­a­betes?

Type 2 di­a­betes, formerly re­ferred to as adult on­set di­a­betes mel­li­tus, is a disease that in­creases in fre­quency with ad­vanc­ing age. In­di­vid­u­als can still pro­duce in­sulin (un­like in type 1 di­a­betes), but do not pro­duce enough in­sulin to meet their body’s needs.

What causes di­a­betes?

Even though di­a­betes may be caused by many of the same fac­tors as other chronic con­di­tions, peo­ple with di­a­betes often face stigma be­cause there are mis­con­cept i ons around what causes the disease. For ex­am­ple, some think that di­a­betes is al­ways caused by diet or life­style choices. Some be­lieve all obese peo­ple will even­tu­ally de­velop the disease or pass on di­a­betes to their chil­dren. The truth is, de­pend­ing on the type, di­a­betes can be caused by a myr­iad of fac­tors that re­searchers are still try­ing to fig­ure out. Source: di­a­betescarecom­mu­nity.ca

Type 1 Di­a­betes Causes

Type 1 di­a­betes oc­curs when your im­mune sys­tem starts at­tack­ing and de­stroy­ing the in­sulin-pro­duc­ing beta cells of the pan­creas. With­out enough in­sulin, the body can’t reg­u­late the blood sugar needed to cre­ate en­ergy. Although the disease usu­ally oc­curs dur­ing child­hood or ado­les­cence, it can also de­velop in adults. And while it’s de­fin­i­tive cause is still un­known, Type 1 di­a­betes is thought to be caused by ge­net­ics and ex­po­sure to en­vi­ron­men­tal fac­tors that may trig­ger the disease. These in­clude viruses such as Ger­man measles or mumps. If you have a par­ent or sib­ling with type 1 di­a­betes, your chances are slightly in­creased for de­vel­op­ing the con­di­tion your­self. Re­searchers have also dis­cov­ered that the disease can de­velop in peo­ple who have a vari­ance of genes in their HLA (hu­man leuko­cyte anti­gen) com­plex, which is used to help the im­mune sys­tem func­tion prop­erly. Type 2 Di­a­betes Causes More com­mon in adults, type 2 di­a­betes oc­curs when your body ei­ther re­sists the ef­fects of in­sulin or doesn’t pro­duce enough to main­tain a nor­mal blood sugar level. Specif­i­cally why this hap­pens is still un­known, although ge­net­ics and life­style fac­tors (such as ex­cess weight and in­ac­tiv­ity) can be con­tribut­ing fac­tors. Be­ing over­weight is strongly linked to the devel­op­ment of type 2 di­a­betes but not ev­ery­one with the con­di­tion is over­weight.

Di­a­betes Canada is proud to join more than 1 bil­lion peo­ple in over 160 coun­tries in com­mem­o­rat­ing World Di­a­betes Day, the world’s largest di­a­betes aware­ness cam­paign. Marked ev­ery year on the birth­day of Sir Fred­er­ick Bant­ing, who co-dis­cov­ered in­sulin in Canada in 1921 with Charles Best, World Di­a­betes Day is an op­por­tu­nity to rec­og­nize one of our na­tion’s great­est achieve­ments. But, this year, Di­a­betes Canada is ask­ing Cana­di­ans to also rec­og­nize that we are fac­ing a di­a­betes epi­demic and im­me­di­ate ac­tion is needed to con­front the many chal­lenges that still lie ahead for the 11 mil­lion Cana­di­ans af­fected by di­a­betes. “Canada has made an ex­traor­di­nary con­tri­bu­tion to the way in which we live with di­a­betes, but the need to win the fight to end it is greater than ever,” says Dr. Jan Hux, Pres­i­dent and CEO of Di­a­betes Canada. “The num­ber of Cana­di­ans liv­ing with di­a­betes has dou­bled since 2000, and the cost of this epi­demic to Canada’s health-care sys­tem is ex­pected to be more than $27 bil­lion this year alone. We sim­ply can­not af­ford to be com­pla­cent, and we need the sup­port of Cana­di­ans and their gov­ern­ment to turn the tide.” Di­a­betes Canada is call­ing on the Gov­ern­ment of Canada to sup­port Di­a­betes 360˚, a na­tional strat­egy and ev­i­dence-based ac­tion plan to pre­vent and man­age the di­a­betes epi­demic. De­vel­oped in rig­or­ous col­lab­o­ra­tion with more than 100 ex­pert aca- demic, health-care, gov­ern­ment, pri­vate in­dus­try and pa­tient ad­vo­cate stake­hold­ers, the ev­i­dence-based ac­tion plan will en­hance the preven­tion, screen­ing and man­age­ment of di­a­betes to achieve bet­ter health for Cana­di­ans. Di­a­betes Canada is call­ing for an in­vest­ment of $150 mil­lion over seven years, which can save the health-care sys­tem more than $9 bil­lion while prevent­ing the devel­op­ment of nearly one mil­lion di­a­betes cases. Di­a­betes Canada is also call­ing on the pub­lic to join a day of ac­tion, us­ing an on­line ad­vo­cacy tool avail­able at di­a­betes.ca/strat­egy to send a mes­sage urg­ing the gov­ern­ment to fund the strate­gic ac­tion plan in Bud­get 2019. “The theme of World Di­a­betes Day 2018 is ‘ The Fam­ily and Di­a­betes’,” says Hux. “A re­cent poll we con­ducted with Ip­sos shows that about half (49%) of Cana­di­ans have a fam­ily mem­ber liv­ing with di­a­betes. We all have a stake in the fu­ture of Canada’s health­care sys­tem, and we all have a role to play in as­sert­ing Canada’s role as a global leader in end­ing the di­a­betes epi­demic.” The bur­den on fam­i­lies of those af­fected by di­a­betes is large. A third, or 32 per cent of those liv­ing with or car­ing for some­one with di­a­betes, have missed work due to the disease, in­clud­ing 15 per cent of those that have left the work­force be­cause of it. For Cana­di­ans who un­der­stand the sever­ity of di­a­betes, 8 in 10 (82%) rank di­a­betes as one of the top three dis­eases that should be pri­or­i­tized by the Gov­ern­ment of Canada, on par with can­cer (85%).

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