1 Yang Jian, Power and Wealth in Digital Frontiers,
Shanghai People’s Publishing House, 2012, p.8. 2 Shen Yi, “Cyberspace Sovereignty: China’s Position on New Global Cyberspace Order,” Guangming, December 19, 2015, http://theory.gmw.cn/2015-12/19/content_18163410_2.htm.
3 Take the Antarctic for example. The Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities in 1988 states that the share of resources a country can enjoy during exploration in the Antarctic shall be determined by its contribution to Antarctic scientific research. Although the Convention fails to come into effect, the principle of “investment matching benefits” written in this Convention sets a precedence for any possible development and utilization of the Antarctic in the future. See Zheng Yingqin, “Discourse Power on the Antarctic,” Journal of International Relations, No.6, 2014, pp. 62-72.
4 The “exceptionalism” of the United States in new frontiers is demonstrated as a kind of “hegemony unbounded by mechanism.” That is, it excludes or rejects some important international rules and regulations in new frontiers. For example, the US has not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).
5 “Wrong US Security Thinking Causes Global Cyberspace Disaster: Chinese Expert,” People.cn, March
28, 2013, http://world.people.com.cn/n/2013/0328/c1002-20946645.html.
6 “Xi Jinping: Promoting Fairer and More Reasonable Global Governance,” Xinhua, October 13, 2015, http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2015-10/13/c_1116812159.htm.