指数和线性参数化的轮胎-路面纵向附着 条件实时估计方法

1 1 1 2 熊 喆 过学迅 裴晓飞 张 杰

China Mechanical Engineering - - 中国机械工程 -

1.武汉理工大学现代汽车零部件技术湖北省重点实验室,武汉, 430070

2.万向集团技术中心,杭州, 311200

摘要:利用动力学建模和遗忘因子递推最小二乘算法,对电动汽车纵向制动工况中轮胎⁃路面附着特性的峰值点估计方法进行研究。以匹配电子液压制动系统的前驱电动汽车为建模对象,提出了一种最大化能量回收的制动分配策略;针对再生制动轮优先趋于抱死这一现象,设计了一种附着条件实时估计算法,以降低利用附着系数进入非线性区域的风险。利用指数和线性模型对非线性Burckhardt摩擦模型进行拟合,并进行了在线辨识的仿真和硬件在环试验,结果表明该算法满足实时性要求,且相较于Kiencke线性化方法,具有更佳的估计精度和收敛速度。

关键词:附着条件估计;指数和;最优滑移率;线性参数化

中图分类号: U461.3

DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1004⁃132X.2018.15.009 开放科学(资源服务)标识码(OSID) : Real-time Tire-road Longitudinal Adhesion Estimation Based on Exponential Sum Linear Parameterization

XIONG Zhe1 GUO Xuexun1 PEI Xiaofei1 ZHANG Jie2

1.Hubei Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology of Automotive Components,

Wuhan University of Technology,Wuhan,430070

2.Wanxiang Group Technical Center,Hangzhou,311200

Abstract: The wheel dynamics modeling and FFRLS ( forgetting factor recursive least ⁃ square) were utilized to develop a method of tire ⁃ road adhesion estimations in longitudinal braking conditions. The modeling object was an FWD(front wheel drive)EV(electric vehicle)equipped with an EHB(elec⁃ tro ⁃ hydraulic brake). Firstly,a maximized regenerative brake distribution strategy was introduced. The regenerative brake wheels would tend to be locked before other wheels in heavy brake conditions. Sec⁃ ondly,a real ⁃ time adhesion estimation method was designed to lowering the risks of wheel locks. The linear parameterization of ES(exponential sum)was introduced to fit non⁃linear Burckhardt friction mod⁃ el,the on⁃line simulations and HiL(hardware⁃in⁃loop)tests were conducted. Results show that the pro⁃ posed linear method may run in real⁃time,and has better estimation accuracy and convergence rate com⁃ pared with linear Kiencke method.

Key words: adhesion estimation;exponential sum(ES);optimal slip ratio;linear parameterization

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引言

轮胎-路面的纵向附着特性通常由以车轮滑移率λ为横坐标、附着系数μ为纵坐标的μ⁃λ曲线表示,曲线呈非线性且包含单一极大值。该极大值对应的纵坐标为轮胎可利用的峰值附着系数μp,横坐标为最优滑移率λp。峰值附着系数为自适应巡航控制( ACC)、驾驶辅助系统( ADAS)和再

收稿日期: 2018-03-01

基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目( 51505354)

生制动分配控制等功能提供必要信息,最优滑移率则是防抱死制动系统( ABS)缩短制动距离的关键控制目标。在车辆主动安全的研究领域,在各种提高车辆稳定性和缩短制动距离的先进控制方法中,大多以该峰值点已知为必要条件,因此峰值点的估计方法一直是研究热点之一。

轮胎-路面附着特性估算方法大致分为两类,即基于原因( cause ⁃ based)和基于结果( effect ⁃ based) 。由车辆参数响应和数学模型反向推导

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