基于模型的动力电池系统多尺度热安全设计

China Mechanical Engineering - - 中国机械工程 -

0 Model-based Multi-scale Thermal Safety Design of Traction

Battery Systems

CHEN Tianyu1 FENG Xuning2 OUYANG Minggao1 LU Languang1

1.State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy,Tsinghua University,Beijing,100084

2.Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology,Tsinghua University,Beijing,100084 Abstract: Aiming at the thermal safety problems of lithium ⁃ ion traction battery systems,from the viewpoints of battery material modification,battery cell design and battery system design,a model ⁃ based thermal safety design and development method for battery systems was proposed. The test meth⁃ ods of thermal stability of battery materials,thermal runaway characteristics of battery cells and thermal runaway propagation of battery systems were summarized. Based on the measured parameters of battery thermal safety characteristics,the model of chemical reaction kinetics for thermal runaway of batteries, the model for predicting temperature and pressure of thermal runaway of cells,and the model for thermal runaway propagation of battery packs were set up. The factors needed to be considered in these models were listed. Using the model for simulation analysis,the main factors affecting the thermal safety of the battery systems were obtained and the design of multi⁃scale thermal safety was guided.

Key words: traction battery system;thermal safety testing and modeling;multi ⁃ scale;design and development mode

引言随着电动汽车的产销量不断增长,电动汽车安全性事故次数也逐年增加,其中,电池热失控是导致电动汽车安全性事故的一个重要原因 。动

[] 1力电池热失控会引起电池系统起火甚至爆炸,进而引燃汽车内饰,给乘客生命财产安全构成重大威胁。动力电池的安全性问题是目前电动汽车发展过程中亟待解决的问题之一。

目前,在主流的纯电动汽车和插电式混合动

收稿日期: 2018-01-18

基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助重点项目( U1564205)

力汽车中,具有能量密度高、循环寿命长、充电速度快等优点的锂离子电池得到最广泛的应用。最常用的锂离子电池负极材料为石墨,正极材料包括磷酸铁锂、钴酸锂、三元锂等。随着人们对电池能量密度提出更高诉求,以高镍三元材料为正极、硅碳材料为负极的锂离子电池成为开发重点,但是电池能量密度提升的同时带来了安全性变差的问题。目前动力电池系统热安全设计较多以“设计-实验验证-重新设计”这种试错的方法进行,造成较高的时间和经济成本,无法满足系统安全性保障跟上能量密度提升步伐的迫切需求。因此在提升电池系统能量密度的同时,开发高效的电

1 2 1 1

陈天雨 冯旭宁 欧阳明高 卢兰光

1.清华大学汽车安全与节能国家重点实验室,北京, 100084

2.清华大学核能与新能源技术研究院,北京, 100084

摘要:针对锂离子动力电池系统的热安全问题,从电池材料、电池单体、电池系统三个尺度,提出了基于模型的电池系统热安全设计开发总体思路。总结了电池材料热稳定性、电池单体热失控特性、电池系统热失控蔓延特性等的测试表征方法。探讨了建立电池热失控的化学反应动力学模型、单体热失控温度与压力预测模型、电池模组热失控蔓延模型过程中需要考虑的因素。利用模型进行仿真分析,可以得到影响电池系统热安全性的主要因素,并指导多尺度热安全设计。

关键词:动力电池系统;热安全测试与建模;多尺度;设计开发模式

中图分类号: U464.9

DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1004⁃132X.2018.15.011 开放科学(资源服务)标识码(OSID) :

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