表2 现有文献中的云制造定义 Tab.2 Definitions of cloud manufacturing in existing literatures

China Mechanical Engineering - - 中国机械工程 - (编辑 郭 伟)

解和实施云制造非常重要的问题也无法在本文中进行讨论,主要包括:

( 1)云制造概念的内涵和外延。云制造是一个不断演化发展的概念,并且与众多智能制造相关的概念有重合之处,比如工业4.0 、工业互联

[] 39

网 、智能制造 、社群化制造 等。未来,需要

[] 40 [] 41 [] 42进一步阐明云制造与这些概念的区别和联系,并以此来阐明云制造概念的内涵和外延。

( 2)云制造技术。云制造的实现需要很多技术的支持。然而,现有的研究并没有说明哪些技· ·

术是核心技术、哪些技术是辅助技术,哪些技术是实现一个最小云制造系统所必须的、哪些技术不是必须的但有助于扩展和完善云制造系统的功能。未来,需要结合云制造实现对云制造需要的技术做进一步的梳理和分析。

( 3)云制造中的云服务和数字孪生的关系。数字孪生 是智能制造领域非常重要的一个概

[] 43念。云制造中的云服务和数字孪生的概念有紧密联系。未来,非常有必要阐明两者的区别和联系,以更加深入地理解云制造中服务的概念。

( 4)硬制造资源的虚拟化和服务化技术。硬制造资源的虚拟化和服务化是构建制造云服务的最核心的技术之一。没有这方面的突破就没有云制造的实现。未来,需要结合具体的硬制造资源,研究和探索硬制造资源的虚拟化和服务化技术。

( 5)云制造企业。云制造是一种新型制造模式,势必会对企业内部管理和运营产生重要影响。云制造环境下的企业称为云制造企业 。

[] 44未来,需要进一步研究云制造环境下企业的需求、架构等。另外,当前智能工厂 是智能制造

[] 45领域非常重要的一个概念,因此,还需要研究云制造企业与智能工厂之间的联系和区别。

( 6)云制造成熟度模型及其评估方法。云制造的开展和实施不是一个一蹴而就的过程。开发云制造成熟度模型有助于评估不同发展阶段云制造实施的成熟度,也可以为实施云制造提供一个分阶段的、具有可操作性的指导。最小云制造系统是一个重要概念,可以作为云制造实施的起点。未来,需要研究云制造成熟度模型及其评估方法。

( 7)云制造开展和实施。主要从范围、行业、企业信息化水平和技术成熟度4个维度对云制造的开展和实施进行详细的分析。比如,不同行业实施云制造的路径和策略是什么?面临哪些挑战?哪些行业更适合应用云制造技术?哪些行业可以更好、更快地实施?

( 8)企业加入云制造。企业加入云制造是云制造成功开展和实施非常重要的一环。需要研究的问题包括:如何理解和定义企业加入云制造?企业如何加入云制造?企业加入云制造的成本和收益分析?研究这些问题能够为企业加入云制造提供决策方面的参考。

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作者简介:刘永奎,男, 1981年生,副教授。研究方向为云制造、智能制造、生产调度和控制。E⁃mail:[email protected]

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