Enterprise Evolution of Service-oriented Manufacturing under the Context of“Internet Plus”

China Mechanical Engineering - - 中国机械工程 -

YAN Kaining LI Gang

School of Management,Xi’an Jiaotong University,Xi’an,710049

Abstract : Firstly,the progresses and deficiencies of management pattern evolutions in manufactur⁃ ing enterprises driven by service⁃oriented manufacturing were organized from the perspective of theories , research methods and conclusions. Secondly,the effects of technological evolutions on service ⁃ oriented manufacturing were discussed under“Internet Plus”background.Thirdly,the management pattern evolu⁃ tions and the technological evolutions were integrated,and the enterprise evolution path should be intelli⁃ gent⁃ ,platformization⁃ ,and networking⁃oriented.It is verified by data that the management pattern evo⁃ lution,technological evolution and their interactions may improve the performances of service ⁃ oriented manufacturing enterprises. Finally,the research framework of service ⁃ oriented manufacturing enterprises was constructed under“Internet Plus”background,and then the research prospects were put forward.

Key words :“Internet Plus”;service⁃oriented manufacturing;management pattern evolution;techno⁃ logical evolution

0 引言在当今经济全球化、新兴技术不断发展的背景下,服务转型是制造企业战略层面需要优先考虑的课题之一 。这种面向服务的转变是企业面

[] 1⁃3临产品生命周期的成熟阶段、市场竞争加剧、以至于利润率降低的一种战略回应,也是企业脱离“产品化陷阱”的一种方式 。利用服务转型,制造企

[] 3业可以获得更高的利润、更稳定的收益,满足更多用户的需求,并以此来建立竞争优势 。这种面向

[] 4服务的战略转变被学者称之为“服务型制造”,意味着企业的运营模式从传统的开发、生产、销售产品向创新、销售、传递服务转变 。包括IBM、

[] 5⁃8

收稿日期: 2018-04-02

基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目( 71832011)

ABB、KONE、劳斯莱斯、Otis、Alston以及海尔在内的国内外知名企业实施了这种战略转型,其服务收益甚至超过企业总收益的一半。

越来越多的制造企业实施服务型制造,但面临很多管理挑战,包括“服务悖论”(指企业虽然实施了服务型制造战略,但并没有获得预期的高回报)、思维转变、组织变革、文化惰性等,这些管理挑战的存在很大程度上阻碍了企业的服务型制造转型进程 。为了应对管理挑战,企业需要对

[] 9长期以来施行的模式做出改变,例如从传统的产品导向思维转化为顾客导向思维,培养员工的服务技能与意识,将服务绩效纳入薪酬管理体系中,成立独立的服务部门等,也需要通过建立服务文化来改变企业对服务的态度,提高组织的服务自

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