AWS Data Communication System Based on Beidou Satellite

Digital Communication World - - 技术 研究 Technology Study -

Zhou Yong

(CMA Development and Research Center, Beijing, 100081)

Abstract: Communication and power supply are the main difficulties in building automatic weather station(aws) in mountains, deserts and islands. In order to solve these problems, some key technologies including overall structure of the system, solar power supply and data compression have been searched. A satellite-ground hybrid communication system structure, a designed method of solar power supply system based on theoretical calculation and engineering practice, and a lossless compression encoding algorithm based on fixed dictionary compression technology to fit Beidou satellite short message communication features have been proposed. These new methods have been applied in the national High-tech Industrial Development Program "Weather Observation Application Based on Beidou satellite pilot project".

Keywords: Meteorology; Beidou satellite; Communication; Automatic Weather Station

1 引言

观测数据是气象预报和服务的基础。除观测设备自身性能外,站网布局对于预报和服务质量也有重要影响。实际工作中,气象观测站往往会受到环境条件限制,难以布设到预报服务所需的最佳位置,从而影响预报准确率或服务效果。通信条件是其中最重要的制约因素之一。在电信基础设施较差的山区、沙漠、海岛等处,问题尤为突出。目前,卫星通信是国内外解决边远、偏僻地区气象通信问

题的主流方式,如:美国GOES卫星的数据收集系

[1]

统(DCS) 、日本葵花卫星(Himawari)的数据收

[2]

集平台(DCP) 、印度INSAT卫星的数据中继转

[3]

发器系统(DRT) 、中国北斗卫星导航系统的短报

文通信平台[4]等。

北斗卫星导航系统是我国自主研发的卫星导航系统,具有快速定位、短报文通信和精密授时三大功能,广泛应用于交通、海洋、气象、水利和测绘等领域。应用北斗卫星承载气象数据通信业务已有多个成功案例,在站网结构、数据流程、编报格式、压缩编码、控制方式等方面也有了一定的经验积累[5-10]。

对于山区、沙漠、海岛等处的无人值守自动气象站,由于其环境条件特殊,采用北斗卫星通信时,需要在供电、编码、监控等方面进行特殊设计。依托国家高技术产业发展计划项目“基于北斗的气象监测应用示范工程”,设计的无人值守自动气象站北斗通信技术方案,已经在西藏珠峰、内蒙古朱日和、南沙群岛等地得到实施,数据传输完整率、正确率和传输时效均能满足业务需求。该方案解

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