乡村振兴语境下的乡村景观管护策略思考

South Architecture - - 风景园林 - 张斌Zhang Bin

Reflections on the Conservation Strategies of the Rural Landscape in the Context of Rural Revitalization

摘要 基于乡村振兴的战略背景,解读了乡村景观生产、生态、环境、识别和遗产等多元价值。分析认为,现行乡村保护对景观价值的选择性忽视、保护与规划脱节等问题,构成了乡村景观管护的难点。进而提出由国家自然资源部主导,以保护景观的重要特征为目标,建立国土(区域)尺度、县域尺度和村落(群)的多层级管护体系。该体系借鉴欧洲景观特征评估方法,分层级实现景观特征类型识别、类型区域划分和特征描述,可为乡村景观的跨区域管护协同、县域管护与产业发展协同、村落(群)整体管护提供理性依据。

关键词 乡村景观;多元价值;景观特征评估;多层级管护aBsTracT Based on the strategic background of rural revitalization, multiple values including production, ecology, environment, identification, and heritage of rural landscapes were analyzed in the present study. The analysis showed that current conservation difficulties in rural landscapes include the selective neglect of landscape values and the disconnection of conservation from planning. To conserve and maintain major landscape features, the method for establishing a multi-level conservation system, led by the Ministry of Natural Resources, on a national (regional) scale, county scale, and village group scale was proposed. The system was built with reference to the European landscape character assessment method to identify the landscape character, and to classify, map, and describe the landscape character areas and/or types at different levels. This provided a rational basis for coordinated cross-regional rural landscape conservation, rural landscape conservation in coordination with industrial development of the county, and the integrated rural landscape conservation of village or village groups.

Key Words rural landscape; multiple values; landscape character assessment; multi-level conservation

*国家自然科学基金资助项目:整合保护导向下的武陵山区传统聚落景观特质区划与个体识别研究,项目编号:51678269;中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助项目:乡村振兴背景下分层级景观特征评估与管护规划研究,项目编号:2662018YJ017。

中图分类号 TU983文献标识码 A

DOI 10.3969/j.issn.1000-0232.2018.03.066 文章编号 1000-0232(2018)03-0066-05

作者简介 农业部华中都市农业重点实验室,主任;华中农业大学风景园林系,教授;电子邮箱:[email protected]

中国是一个农业大国,更是农业文明古国。在漫长的历史过程中,不同民族(族群)世代开疆辟土,拓展和延续农林牧渔的生产和生活,形成了千姿百态的乡村景观,维系和展示着国土景观的多样性。在全球化、现代化和城镇化发展的进程中,历史上长期稳定的乡村景观面临普遍异化、整体衰退的威胁[1]。十九大报告将乡村振兴战略作为国家战略纳入党和政府工作的重要议程,为乡村景观可持续发展提供了历史性机遇。本文在解读乡村景观管护的内涵和难点基础上,探讨从国土宏观尺度到村落微观尺度的乡村景观多层级管护策略,以期裨益

官方网站 www.nfjzbjb.com

于新时代中国乡村的可持续发展。

1乡村衰退与乡村振兴

中国有超过 7000年农业文明的历史,精细农业始于公元前3 世纪,此后的两千余年里,农业一直是国家主导产业,以农业为生的农民占人口的绝大多数。春秋时期管子将平民依次分为“士农工商”四类,农民在传统农业社会里的重要地位可见一斑。在全球性转向工业化、现代化发展过程中,农业产业的地位、农民的重要性受到严峻挑

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