流浪猫狗问题值得重视

萨拉,江汉大学生命科学学院教授,意大利动物行为与福利学专家。2007年来到中国,在中国从事动物研究已有十一年之久。 她喜欢和动物相处,能够从动物的神情动作中看懂它们的心思。她认为,动物有语言,人类和所有动物都共享着或多或少的DNA,因此人类和动物是紧密联系在一起的。为响应“全球狂犬病控制联盟”的号召,近两年的世界狂犬病日,她都在武汉举办了推广活动,免费提供上百支狂犬病疫苗,希望为控制狂犬病做一些贡献。

Special Focus - - Spotlight - 文 / 周献献 颜碧玉

目前,在流浪猫狗成为严肃的城市问题之时,我们采访了意大利动物行为学专家莎拉 普拉托。

为什么我们能在城市里看到那么多的流浪猫狗呢?过度繁殖是主要原因。以猫为例,一只母猫一年就能生下 6 到 15 只小猫,新生的小猫一年内就可以发育成熟开始生育。对此,国际上公认的办法是对流浪动物进行捉捕、绝育、放归,这样不仅可以控制流浪猫狗的数目,也可以为它们创造一个相对稳定的环境——避免流动和争斗。

另外一个原因是人类对宠物的遗弃。为此莎拉说,对宠物应该有完备的管理措施。萨拉以意大利为例:每一个宠物会在后颈部皮下植入芯片,记录着主人的姓名和联系方式,遗弃宠物会被追究法律责任。

对于流浪动物带来的疾病问题,莎拉表示狂犬病是唯一会给人 类带来生命危险的传染病,其他疾病对人类并无严重伤害。这种传染病可以从动物传染到人类,导致每年全球大约有六万人死亡。

她说,杀死动物绝对不是控制狂犬病的有效办法。在 2008 年,巴厘岛狂犬病爆发,政府杀死了近20万只狗,当地的疫情反而更严重 了。莎拉解释到,流浪动物会在一定的区域内组成团体,团体的数量由该区域的食物资源而决定。一旦该区域的动物被杀掉一部分,就会有其他地方的动物过来争夺食物。这样的流动会带来动物团体之间的争斗,狂犬病更容易扩散。

控制狂犬病最有效的办法是给

man­age­ment mea­sures to help mit­i­gate this. In Italy, for ex­am­ple, ev­ery pet has a mi­crochip im­planted un­der their skin be­tween their shoul­der blades, which records the owner’s name and con­tact in­for­ma­tion. Aban­don­ing pets is against the law in Italy and has le­gal li­a­bil­i­ties.

As for the dis­eases stray an­i­mals carry, Dr. Platto said that ra­bies is the only in­fec­tious dis­ease that can bring dan­ger to hu­man life, while other dis­eases do not cause se­ri­ous harm to liv­ing crea­tures. The in­fec­tion can spread from an­i­mals to hu­mans, killing about 60,000 peo­ple world­wide each year.

She said that killing an­i­mals is def­i­nitely not an ef­fec­tive way to con­trol ra­bies. In 2008, dur­ing a ma­jor out­break of ra­bies on the is­land of Bali, the govern­ment killed nearly 200,000 dogs, but the lo­cal epi­demic be­came more se­ri­ous. Dr. Platto ex­plained that a ter­ri­tory can only sup­port a cer­tain num­ber of an­i­mals and the an­i­mals in­side the ter­ri­tory form a well- con­trolled and man­aged group which doesn’t al­low other an­i­mals to come in. Once some of the an­i­mals in the area are killed, other an­i­mals will come to com­pete for food. Such flows can lead to fights be­tween an­i­mals, and thus ra­bies is more likely to spread.

The most ef­fec­tive way to con­trol ra­bies is to give an­i­mals a ra­bies vac­cine. Peo­ple who have been bit­ten by cats and dogs need five more shots, even if they have been vac­ci­nated. How­ever, dogs and

cats need to be vac­ci­nated only once a year even if they get bit by an in­fected an­i­mal. In Italy, for ex­am­ple, be­tween the 1960s and 1970s, the govern­ment used to or­ga­nize vac­ci­na­tion cam­paigns ev­ery six months, which of­fered free vac­cines for ev­ery pet owner and threw baits con­tain­ing oral ra­bies vac­cine to the streets or the wild for stray and wild an­i­mals. This has led to the ex­tinc­tion of ra­bies in Italy since the 1970s.

Gen­er­ally speak­ing, cats and dogs do not at­tack hu­mans for no rea­son. Although an­i­mals can­not ex­press them­selves in lan­guage, hu­man be­ings can un­der­stand them by learn­ing about and ob­serv­ing their be­hav­ior. “We should learn to iden­tify their emo­tions: Un­der what cir­cum­stances can we be close to each other and un­der what cir­cum­stances it is best to keep our dis­tance.”

Dr. Platto be­lieves that cats and dogs have lived on earth as hu­mans’ part­ners for thou­sands of years, and it is our duty to cre­ate an en­vi­ron­ment where hu­mans can live in har­mony with these an­i­mals.

(Trans­la­tion: Qing Run) 动物们注射狂犬病疫苗,即从源头上解决问题。被猫狗咬伤的人,即便曾有疫苗的注射经历,仍需再次注射五只疫苗。不过,给猫狗注射的疫苗可以拥有更长的有效期。仍以意大利为例:上世纪 60 至 70年代之间,政府每半年为猫狗们注射一次疫苗,并投掷装有可食用疫苗的食物在街头。这使得狂犬病病例逐渐在意大利销声匿迹。

通常来说,猫狗们不会随便攻击人类。动物不会用人的语言来表达自己,而人却可以通过学习相关的知识去理解它们。“我们应该学会辨认它们的情绪:什么情况下可以亲近,什么情况下最好保持距离。”

莎拉认为,猫狗们作为人类的伙伴共同生存了上千年,我们有责任创造一个人和猫狗能够和谐共处的环境。

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