Super Studio超级工作室

Vantage Shanghai - - THE CULTURALIST / 文化圈 -

人们可以同时 用“荒 诞不羁”“天工之作”或是“一无是处”来形容从未完成过一件实体建筑作品的传奇团体—— “超级工作室”。然而,正是这个无法被标签化的团体,启发了包括扎哈和库哈斯在内的无数建筑大师。

People have used “uninhibited absurdity”, “superlative craftsmanship”, even “nothing good” to describe Superstudio, but the legendary group that has never completed a physical architectural work. However, it was this group that inspired countless master architects including Zaha and Koolhaas.

In the mid-1960s, when the Italian economy had just recovered from the World War II, the young hippies were still not willing to wake up from the dream of "Utopia”. At this point, Adolfo Natalini, studying at the University of Florence's Department of Architecture, came up with some ideas that seemed "non-mainstream" at that time. He did not want to be like any other architect and become the capitalist's building tool after graduation. At that point in school, he met Cristiano Toraldo di Francia, who was also questioning and thinking about the nature of architecture. They hit it off right away, bursting with creative ideas. Soon, more and more people agreed with their ideas and so Superstudio was born.

In 1966, Superstudio met six designers and architects who saw themselves as "Free Thinkers". In December, these eleven people had a whim that they would hold an exhibition called "Superarchitettura” in Jolly2 Gallery of the Italian town of Pistoia. They denied the Modernism which was popular back then and presented the concept of “the architecture of superproduction, of superconsumption, and super induction to consumption, of supermarkets, superman and super gas". Unexpectedly, it was such an exhibition that led to the "Radical Architecture Movement" that was promoting the Italian design revolution.

FROM ANTI-UTOPIA TO ANTI-DESIGN

Over the years following the exhibition, Superstudio successively created their most representative design scheme and presented the diversity theory proposal and thinking evolution of the team members at the same time. In 1969, Superstudio created "Histograms of Architecture", an anti-utopia story "The Continuous Monument" and the summative works A Journey into the Realm of Reason. Through painting, collage, printing and photography, the "catalogue of non-continuous three-dimensional diagrams” that consists of lines and white grid, pieces together a brand-new conceptual world with a vast net structure across the globe and the outer space. Meanwhile, the attention is directed to the topic of architectural scale, and the architectural design is assumed to be “abstract designs of substantial forms”. The most famous work is one of The Continuous Monument series in which Manhattan, New York, is covered with a rectangular stone.

During this period, most works produced by Superstudio were focused on the utopian concept of negating modernity. While promoting the concept of dystopia, they used the reduction to absurdity with irony to prove the limitations and absurdity of the assumption “architecture can change the world”. In the process of unknowing proof and disproof, the research scope of Superstudio had completely gone beyond the scope of architecture, and it had created a complex and vague field of creation. This field didn't only challenge the concept of architecture but also touched the definition of art works. The Superstudio turned “architectures” into the philosophical argument about the ability of man to act rationally.

“If design is merely an inducement to consume, then we must reject design; if architecture is merely the codifying of the bourgeois models of ownership and society, then we must reject architecture.” In 1972, Adolfo Natalini put forward that if architecture and town planning is merely the formalization of present unjust social divisions, then we must reject town planning and its cities. “Until all design

上世纪60年代中期,意大利经济刚刚从第二次世界大战中复苏,年轻的嬉皮士还沉浸在“乌托邦”的美梦中不愿醒来……此时,就读于佛罗伦萨大学建筑系的阿道夫·纳塔利产生了一些彼时显得十分“非主流”的想法——他不甘愿像其他建筑师一样,在毕业后沦为资本家的“盖房工具”。此时在学校里,他遇到了同样质疑与思考建筑本质的克里斯蒂亚诺· 托拉尔多·迪弗兰恰。两人一拍即合,创意迸发。很快,他们的想法得到另外三人的认同……于是,“超级工作室”诞生了。

1966年,“超级工作室”遇到了六位自誉为“自由思想者”的设计师和建筑师。12月,这十一人突发奇想,在意大利小镇皮斯托亚的Jolly2画廊举办了一场名为“超建筑”的展览,大言不惭地否定了当时正流行的现代主义理念,并呈现了其“超生产建筑、超消费建筑,以及对超消费、超市、超人类和超高级汽油做超归纳的建筑”的概念。没想到,正是这样一场展览,竟掀起了一场推动意大利设计革命的“激进建筑运动”。

从反乌托邦到反设计

在展览后的数年间,“超级工作室”相继创作了其最具代表性的设计方案,同时展现了小组成员的多样性理论提议与思维演变。1969年,“超级工作室”创作了《建筑直方图》、反乌托邦故事《连续的纪念碑》以及总结性的作品《理性之旅》。通过绘画、拼贴、印刷和摄影等方式,用线条与白色格子组成的“无延续三维立体图”以跨越全球与外太空的巨大网状结构,拼凑出了一个全新的概念世界。同时,将目光投射到建筑尺度这一议题上,将建筑设计假设为一种“针对实体的抽象设计”。其中,以美国纽约曼哈顿被一矩形巨石穿透笼罩的《连续的纪念碑》系列之一最为著名。

这期间,“超级工作室”的作品大多把目光放在否定现代性的乌托邦概念上。他们在提倡反乌托邦概念的同时,带有讽刺意味地运用归谬法证明出了“建筑能够改变世界”这一假设的局限性和荒谬性。在不自知的证明与反证的过程中,“超级工作室”的研究范围却已经完全

activities are aimed towards meeting primary needs. Until then design must disappear.”

To prove their point, the team began to devote themselves to film production. Among them, the film Fundamental Acts again raised an objection about the existence of the architectures and also put forward that “Architecture never touches the great themes and the fundamental themes of our lives; architecture remains at the limit.” Since then, the team began to question the link between the life and design. However, while this work demonstrated their ambition to reshape architectural exploration from the anthropological and architectural perspective, it also made the team members produce their own creative ideas. Therefore, to some extent, Fundamental Acts can be regarded as the inducement of Superstudio to be officially disbanded in the early 1980s. In the three years after 1973, five team members went their separate ways.

SUPERSTUDIO 50

As the most famous radical architecture group on the international stage in the 1970s and 1980s, Superstudio explored the relationship between architecture and human behavior in terms of life, education, ritual, love and death and other themes, trying to reshape architecture through anthropology and philosophy. Their influence covers many fields such as architecture, design, art and philosophy, which can be considered a myth in design history after World War II.

At the end of last year, the large retrospective exhibition "Superstudio 50” which was planned by Superstudio and curated by Gabriele Mastrigli, presented an autobiography-style review of the group for the public in the Power Station of Art. "For 'Superstudio', architecture is a way of thinking, not just a skill. It's more like philosophy. Therefore, this exhibition is a critical reflection on their contribution to the field of architecture and the category of architecture itself.” said the curator.

This exhibition presents the process from the establishment of the group in 1966 to the formal disbandment in the early 1980s. A total of more than two hundred pieces of device, painting, photomontage, design manuscript, print, publications, and videos are exhibited. The team also produced the works of the same name for this exhibition, based on The Continuous Monument from 1969. In addition, the exhibition hall also displays the Superstudio style furniture, put into production by major companies in succession since the 1970s. This tells us that the influence of Superstudio in the field of design continues to this day.

超越了建筑范畴,它开创了一个复杂且模糊的创作领域。而这个领域不仅挑战了建筑的概念,更触及了艺术作品的定义,“超级工作室”俨然将“建筑”变成了一场关于人类理性行事能力的哲学论证。

“如果‘设计’只是为了促进消费而存在,那么我们必须拒绝设计; 如果‘建筑’仅仅是资产阶级所有制和社会模式的编纂,那么我们必须拒绝建筑。”1972年,阿道夫·纳塔利尼提出,如果建筑和城市规划仅仅是不公正社会分化的形式化体现,那么人们应该学会对“城市规划”甚至城市的概念说“不”。“直到所有的设计都能够服务于人类的基本需求为止。在此之前,设计必须消失。”

为了论证观点,小组开始投身于影片制作。其中,影片《基本行为》再次对于建筑的存在提出了异议,提出了“建筑从未触碰到我们生命中的重大和基础的主题,它总是处在边缘地带”的理论。由此,小组开始试图追问生命与设计之间的联系。然而,这一作品在展示了他们希望从人类学和建筑学层面重塑建筑探索的野心的同时,却也让小组成员产生出了各自不同的创作思路。所以,《基本行为》在一定程度上可以被认作“超级工作室”80年代初正式解散的诱因。1973年后的三年间,五名成员的发展陆续分道扬镳。

超级工作室50年

作为七八十年代国际舞台上最知名的激进建筑团体,“超级工作室”分别就生命、教育、仪式、爱与死亡等主题分篇章探讨建筑与人类行为的关系,试图通过人类学和哲学重新塑造建筑范畴,其影响力涵盖建筑、设计、艺术、哲学等多个领域,可谓二战后设计史上的一个神话。

去年年底,由“超级工作室”策划,加布里埃尔·马斯特里伊策展的“超级工作室50年”大型回顾展,在上海当代艺术博物馆为公众呈现了小组带有自传色彩的回顾。“对‘超级工作室’来说,建筑是一种思考方式,它不仅仅是技艺而更是哲学。因此,本次展览是一场批判式反思,关乎他们为建筑领域所做的贡献,以及建筑这一范畴本身。”策展人马斯特里伊说。

此次的展览呈现了小组自1966年成立伊始至80年代初正式解散的过程,其中,共展出了逾两百件装置、绘画、蒙太奇摄影、设计手稿、版画、出版物及影像系列作品。小组还以1969年《连续的纪念碑》为故事内容,为本展览特别制作了同名影像作品。此外,展厅中,还陈列着自上世纪70年代起陆续被各大公司投入生产的“超级工作室”风格家具,足见“超级工作室”在设计领域延续至今的影响力。

本页起顺时针CLOCKWISE FROM THIS PAGE 《基本行为:教育》 The Fundamental Acts: Education《沙发》Sofa《测量》Measure

左页起顺时针 CLOCKWIE FROM LEFT PAGE《基本行为:生活(超表面)》Fundamental Acts: Life (Supersurface),《十二座理想之城 第五城:半球城市》The TWELVE Ideal Cities. Fifth City: City of the Hemisphere《超级工作室景观办公室》Superstudio Landscape Office

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