RODOLFO VALENTINO IN L'AQUILA
Ferragamo settled in Hollywood. During his stay, he continued to propagate cultural interactions between Italy and Hollywood.
Hence, the exhibition put focus on Ferragamo’s interest in art, craftsmanship and entertainment during his most creative years. The clue expands itself like a playing film, and with the help of Maurizio Balò’s stage effect inspired by 1920s’ American studio, visitors are invited to a fully immersive movie scene. A large part of the exhibition aims at deciphering the Italian elements in American films. Italian feature films, which can be characterized by their grand scenes of landscapes and vivid footage of real life, the influence of which gradually seeped into their American counterparts, especially the Roman-based titles like Giovanni Pastrone’s 1914 film Cabiria. The Taviani Brothers’ 1987 film Good Morning Babilonia, on the other hand casts light on the “finish the job well” mentality among Italian immigrants. In the 1920s Hollywood, Italian silent films were fascinating “labs” and cultivated many Tinsel town superstars, including Lido Manetti, Tina Modotti, Frank Puglia, Lina Cavalieri, comedian Monty Banks (pseudonym of Mario Bianchi) and the “pioneer modern star” Rudolph Valentino. Italian-born film directors like Frank Capra and Robert Vignola, second-generation immigrants Gregory La Cava and Frank Borzage dedicated their life to the American film industry as well. 业迁往好莱坞，他也随之前往，并在好莱坞大道上开了一家名为”Hollywood Boot Shop”的新店铺。光临这家店的顾客包括当时的众多巨星，例如1929年以《卖得风情》一片获奥斯卡最佳女主角奖的玛丽· 璧克馥、波兰演员波拉· 尼格丽、查理· 卓别林、1945年以《欲海情魔》获得了第18届奥斯卡最佳女主角奖尔后又继承夫业成为百事可乐公司女董事的琼· 克劳馥、1971年获得第43届奥斯卡金像奖终身成就奖的丽莲·吉许和美国传奇男演员鲁道尔夫 ·华伦天奴等。他们与菲拉格慕的关系随着时间的推移从工作转向友谊，开始在日常生活中结交往来。慢慢地，菲拉格慕开始在好莱坞扎下根，而他本人在那段时间的经历，也成为了意大利文化与当时好莱坞互动的见证。因此，本次展览便聚焦在菲拉格慕在创作过程中颇为感兴趣的艺术、工艺和娱乐领域上，线索如同电影情节般逐步展开，辅以布景师莫利兹奥· 巴洛以上世纪20年代美国工作室为灵感而设计的舞台效果，让参观者仿
若置身于电影场景中。展览的很大一部分旨在展现加州制作的电影大片中所蕴含的意大利风情及其影响。意大利电影的特点为剧情片，突出对众多宏伟瑰丽的风景地貌的运用，以及与真实场景的呼应：例如灵感源自剧院和歌剧舞台设计的布景。那个时期的很多意大利电影对美国产生了巨大的影响，尤其是以古罗马精神为灵感的影片，例如乔凡尼· 帕斯特隆于1914年执导的《卡比利亚》。片场的很多能工巧匠都是意大利人，如塔维亚尼兄弟于1987年执导的《早安，巴比伦》，重点强调了显见于某种特定类型的意大利移民（比如菲拉格慕）的“出色完成工作”的文化。在上世纪20年代的好莱坞，意大利默片是有趣的“实验场”，培养出了很多后来成为好莱坞巨星的演员，成就了丽都·曼内蒂、蒂娜·莫都蒂、弗兰克·普格利亚和丽娜·卡瓦列丽等极具潜力的好莱坞女星，或是喜剧演员莫提·班克斯（马里奥· 比安奇的艺名）以及堪称“现代明星先驱”的鲁道尔夫·华伦天奴。投身美国电影界的还包括生于意大利、少时移民美国的导演，比如六次获得奥斯卡最佳导演奖提名、获奖三次的弗兰克· 卡普拉和罗伯特 ·维格诺拉，以及格雷葛莱·拉 · 卡瓦和刘· 波萨奇等第二代美籍意大利裔。
MULTI-INTERACTION OF CULTURE
The clue of the exhibition shows the core idea of the curator, that is, enabling the audience to understand the Italian immigration wave in California during the early 20th century. Though its history is rarely known to the public, this was a critical time in the cultural development of California, and providing a chance for audiences to appreciate the state’s burgeoning cultural diversity. Meanwhile, this promotes understanding of the Italian immigrants’ life in the West Coast and interdisciplinary communications of different arts. Especially the White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASP) were in conflict with American Italians and this intense relationship was also featured in some Italian literature at that time.
To vividly present the theme, the curator specially added Ferragamo’s personal sound recording in 1957, during which explains his understandings of life and passion for his career. Just as he says, he kept a low-profile throughout his life.
The exhibition not only features remarkable Italian figures, but also Italy’s contribution to the field of music. Some music performers combine nature with culture in exceptionally harmoEnrico nious ways. For instance,
Caruso staged his talent through unrelenting practice of voice and body language. The show also presents American films based on ancient Rome, including Fred Niblo’s Ben Hur (1925), Lillian Gish’s The White Sister and Romola (the last of which was made in Rifredi Studio in Florence, 1924, and consulted the professionals from Laurentian Library, Guido Biagi and Gabriellino d’Annunzio.)
For different reasons, they participated in the film production and brought elements of the Renaissance and 19th century Romanticism to film. Moreover, the exhibition also reveals that many Italian elements were involved in Hollywoods silent movie era: the epic masterpiece Cabiria for example creatively combines film with history of art. At that time, Hollywood superstars mimicked the manners of Italian portraits and brought them onto the screen. The show also exhibits some pictures and documents brought back to Italy by Ferragamo himself, which record his days in California (1915 to 1927), his bold experiments and active social life. Through the wash of time, these memories emerge to be mysterious and charming than ever.
拉菲罗·甘波吉，《移民者》，1894，帆布油画 Raffaello Gambogi, The Emigrants, Oil on canvas