Howler Magazine - - Community - By Gil­berth Cavallini

There are many sit­u­a­tions in vet­eri­nary medicine when a blood trans­fu­sion might be help­ful in pa­tients with se­vere ane­mia, low platelets

(very com­mon in tick fever), acute bleed­ing (re­lated to trauma, surgery or co­ag­u­lopa­thy), in­tox­i­ca­tion or con­gen­i­tal blood dis­ease.

The vet­eri­nar­ian must first de­ter­mine which spe­cific prod­uct is re­quired, such as com­plete blood, red blood cells, blood plasma or blood plasma rich in platelets. Next, we have to per­form a ba­sic blood type test on our pa­tient, just to avoid ad­verse re­ac­tions. It's im­por­tant to know your pet's blood type and not wait for the day there is an emer­gency.

There are six to eight ca­nine blood types, iden­ti­fied as DEA (dog ery­thro­cyte anti­gen), fol­lowed by a num­ber. The blood type DEA1 is more likely to cause ad­verse re­ac­tions, and can be de­ter­mined at our hos­pi­tal.

Cats have three blood types: A, B and AB, with type A be­ing the most com­mon. Fe­lines have an­ti­bod­ies against the blood type they do not have, whereas dogs do not. That's why cats might suf­fer an ad­verse re­ac­tion to a non-tested blood trans­fu­sion the first time, but dogs do not.

The blood trans­fu­sion can be per­formed di­rectly from a donor an­i­mal, or from a bag if the vet­eri­nary hos­pi­tal has its own blood bank, as in our case. Donor and re­cip­i­ent blood sam­ples are tested for com­pat­i­bil­ity as a pre­cau­tion against re­jec­tion.

Blood trans­fu­sions must be con­ducted in a vet­eri­nary hos­pi­tal by pro­fes­sion­als of­fer­ing as­sis­tance to the pa­tient dur­ing the process. The blood be­ing trans­fused must be at body tem­per­a­ture. Trans­fu­sions last about four hours, re­gard­less of the blood vol­ume re­quired. The pa­tient's tem­per­a­ture, heart rate, pulse, mu­cous mem­branes and other pa­ram­e­ters are checked con­stantly for the en­tire du­ra­tion. The first 30 min­utes are the most im­por­tant for vig­i­lance to ad­verse re­ac­tions. Once the pro­ce­dure is fin­ished, a com­plete blood work test is run to demon­strate ef­fi­cacy of the trans­fu­sion.

Cavallini Vet­eri­nary Hos­pi­tal be­longs to the Blood Banks Net­work for Costa Rica from Ve­teri­naria Machado. We of­fer blood type tests, com­pat­i­bil­ity blood tests and blood bag trans­fu­sions to pets in Gua­nacaste, meet­ing the needs of both our own pa­tients and those of other vet­eri­nar­i­ans too. Span­ish words end­ing in –o are usu­ally mas­cu­line and take mas­cu­line ad­jec­tives and ar­ti­cles (el, un). Like­wise, words end­ing in –a are usu­ally fem­i­nine and take fem­i­nine ad­jec­tives and ar­ti­cles (la, una). But there are nu­mer­ous ex­cep­tions.

el agua fría — cold wa­ter

This was seem­ingly in­vented to tor­ture Span­ish learn­ers, as the word for wa­ter is fem­i­nine, and takes fem­i­nine ad­jec­tives (fría, cold; tibia, warm), but takes the mas­cu­line ar­ti­cle “el,” to avoid the dou­ble “A” in "la agua", not un­like how in English we don't say “a ap­ple.” Note that the plu­ral is the fem­i­nine las aguas.

Gen­der Ben­ders

el artista — male artist el atleta — male ath­lete el ci­clista — male cy­clist el clima — cli­mate el día — day el fan­tasma — ghost el fut­bolista — male soc­cer player el id­ioma — lan­guage el mapa — map el pe­ri­odista — male jour­nal­ist el plan­eta — planet el policía —po­lice­man el prob­lema — prob­lem el pro­grama — pro­gram el sis­tema — sys­tem el sofá — couch el tema — sub­ject el tequila — tequila el tur­ista — male tourist la foto — photo la mano — hand la mod­elo — fe­male model la moto — mo­tor­cy­cle la ra­dio — ra­dio (used to re­fer to the medium, though a ra­dio set you can hold in your hands is el ra­dio, un ra­dio) la sol­dado — fe­male sol­dier

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