What you should know a bout Cu­ba

Guía de Excelencias Cuba - - Summary -

OFFICIAL NA­ME:

Re­pu­blic of Cu­ba

CA­PI­TAL:

Ha­va­na/2 121,871 in­ha­bi­tants

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE:

Spa­nish

DEMONYM:

Cu­ban

URBANIZATION IN­DEX:

75.9%

POPULATION:

11 242,628 in­ha­bi­tants

POPULATION DENSITY:

102.3 in­ha­bi­tants per squ. km

POPULATION GROWTH RATE:

2.5 %

LI­FE EXPECTANCY:

79.1 years

BIRTH RATE:

11.2 births/1,000 in­ha­bi­tants.

INFANT MORTALITY RATE:

4.3 deaths/1000 li­ve births

CU­RRENCY:

Cu­ban Pe­so (CUP), Cu­ban Pe­so Con­ver­ti­ble (CUC)

GO­VERN­MENT

It is a So­cia­list Uni­ta­rian Lay Sta­te, who­se go­ver­ning bo­dies are the Coun­cil of Sta­te and Mi­nis­ters, and the Na­tio­nal As­sembly of the Peo­ple’s Po­wer, which in turn ha­ve lo­cal bo­dies in the pro­vin­ces and mu­ni­ci­pa­li­ties.

ADMINISTRATIVE-PO­LI­TI­CAL DI­VI­SION

Cu­ba is di­vi­ded in­to th­ree lar­ge re­gions com­po­sed by 15 pro­vin­ces and 168 mu­ni­ci­pa­li­ties in­clu­ding the spe­cial mu­ni­ci­pa­lity of Is­la de la Ju­ven­tud. The pro­vin­ces from west to east are: Pi­nar del Río, Ar­te­mi­sa, La Ha­ba­na, Ma­ya­be­que, Ma­tan­zas, Vi­lla Cla­ra, Cien­fue­gos, San­cti Spí­ri­tus, Cie­go de Avi­la, Ca­ma­güey, Las Tu­nas, Holguin, Gran­ma, San­tia­go de Cu­ba and Guan­tá­na­mo.

LO­CA­TION

The Re­pu­blic of Cu­ba is an ar­chi­pe­la­go

that bor­ders to the north with the Flo­ri­da Straits and the Ni­cho­las and Old Baha­ma chan­nels; to the east with the Wind­ward Pas­sa­ge; to the south with the Ca­rib­bean Sea, and to the west with the Strait of Yu­ca­tan. It is lo­ca­ted south of the Tro­pic of Can­cer, on the eastern pe­ri­me­ter of the Gulf of Me­xi­co. A hun­dred and eighty ki­lo­me­ters to the north lies Key West, and 21 km in the sa­me di­rec­tion is the Com­mon­wealth of The Baha­mas; on the east it is se­pa­ra­ted 77 km, by the Wind­ward Pas­sa­ge, from the His­pa­nio­la is­land, whi­le in the south it is 140 km from the Cay­man Is­lands and 210 km west is the Yu­ca­tan Pe­nin­su­la.

EX­TEN­SION

Cu­ba is the lar­gest and wes­tern­most is­land of the Grea­ter An­ti­lles, with 104,446.08 squa­re km of ex­ten­sion. Its length from east to west, from Ca­pe San An­to­nio to Pun­ta de

Mai­sí, is 1,250 km whi­le its width, from north to south, va­ries bet­ween 31 and 210 km. The coastli­ne on the north is 3,209 km long and in the south it is 2,537 km. Due to its na­rrow and elon­ga­ted sha­pe it is com­pa­red to a cay­man, and be­cau­se of its geo­grap­hi­cal lo­ca­tion, at the en­tran­ce of the Gulf of Me­xi­co, it is known as the “Key of the Gulf.”

IN­SU­LAR GROUPS

Cu­ba is an ar­chi­pe­la­go for­med by the Is­land of Cu­ba, the Is­le of Youth and around 4,195 cays, is­lets and is­lands. With a to­tal area of 109,886.19 squa­re km, it has four is­land groups: Los Co­lo­ra­dos, Sa­ba­na-ca­ma­güey (Jar­di­nes del Rey), and Jar­di­nes de la Rei­na and Ca­na­rreos; the lat­ter being the one of grea­test im­por­tan­ce for the Is­land of Youth is lo­ca­ted he­re (which runs se­cond in ex­ten­sion af­ter the Is­land of Cu­ba with 2,204 squa­re km).

RELIEF

The relief stands out for its com­ple­xity and di­ver­sity, cons­ti­tu­ted by moun­tains, heights and plains that re­pre­sent two thirds of the te­rri­tory; about 70% ha­ve an­gles of slo­pe of 3° and less. Car­bo­na­ted rocks pre­do­mi­na­te in mo­re than 60% of the te­rri­tory, in­fluen­ced by the ac­tion of the cli­ma­te, and a to­po­graphy whe­re karst de­ve­lop­ments pre­do­mi­na­te in the relief and sub­soil of the ar­chi­pe­la­go. Four per­cent of the te­rri­tory is oc­cu­pied by wetlands.

Th­ree lar­ge moun­tain ran­ges stand out: Cor­di­lle­ra de Gua­ni­gua­ni­co in the west of the country, for­med by Sierra del Ro­sa­rio to the east and Sierra de los Or­ga­nos to the west, both di­vi­ded by San Die­go Ri­ver. Its hig­hest peak is Pan de Gua­jai­bón with 699 m abo­ve sea le­vel.

In the cen­ter of the country is the Gua­muha­ya Moun­tain Ran­ge, for­med by Al­tu­ras de Tri­ni­dad (Tri­ni­dad Heights) to the nort­heast, Al­tu­ras de San­cti Spí­ri­tus to the sout­heast, and Sierra del Es­cam­bray. Pi­co Po­tre­ri­llo is its hig­hest ele­va­tion with a height of 931 m abo­ve sea le­vel; at its feet is lo­ca­ted the city of Tri­ni­dad.

The eastern zo­ne is ho­me to the lar­gest moun­tain ran­ge in Cu­ba: Sierra Maes­tra, whe­re the hig­hest ele­va­tion of the is­land is lo­ca­ted: Pi­co Real del Tur­quino with a height of 1,974 m abo­ve sea le­vel, es­cor­ted by peaks Cu­ba with 1,872 m abo­ve sea le­vel and Sue­cia with 1,734 m abo­ve sea le­vel, which to­get­her form Sierra del Tur­quino. The­re is al­so lo­ca­ted La Gran Pie­dra (the Great Stone), a rock weig­hing mo­re than 70 thou­sand tons, lo­ca­ted at 1,225 m abo­ves sea le­vel, ran­king as the third lar­gest in the world.

In the eastern zo­ne are al­so lo­ca­ted Al­tu­ras de Sa­gua­ba­ra­coa, with Sierra de Cris­tal, Cu­chi­llas del Toa and ot­hers. On the Is­le of Youth, the hig­hest al­ti­tu­de is in Sierra de la Ca­ña­da, with 303 me­ters abo­ve sea le­vel. The southern part of the Is­land is an area rich in la­goons and wetlands. The most im­por­tant area is Cié­na­ga de Za­pa­ta, in the pro­vin­ce of Ma­tan­zas.

HYDROGRAPHY

In the hy­dro­logy of the is­land of Cu­ba, the main wa­ters­hed is lo­ca­ted at the cen­ter and th­roug­hout the te­rri­tory, di­vi­ding it in­to two slo­pes, north and south. The lon­gest ri­vers are: Cau­to, Sa­gua la Gran­de, Za­za, Cao­nao and San Pe­dro. The Toa Ri­ver (116.2 km) lo­ca­ted in the pro­vin­ces of Hol­guín and Guan­ta­na­mo is the fas­test flo­wing ri­ver in the country. In Cu­ba, ri­vers do not ha­ve lar­ge le­vels and are fed by rain­fall. Most of the ri­vers are dam­med, with the lar­gest re­ser­voirs being Za­za (1,020 mi­llion m3), Ala­cra­nes (352 mi­llion m3) and Cau­to-el Pa­so (330 mi­llion m3) lo­ca­ted in the pro­vin­ces of San­cti Spí­ri­tus, Vi­lla Cla­ra and Gran­ma res­pec­ti­vely. In the Is­le of Youth, the hy­dro­grap­hic network has a ra­dial dis­tri­bu­tion: Las Nue­vas Ri­ver (28 km) and Las Ca­sas Ri­ver (14.5 km) stand out, the lat­ter

being dam­med and for­ming the Las Ca­sas Dos re­ser­voir.

COASTLI­NE

It has ap­pro­xi­ma­tely 5,746 km of very irre­gu­lar coasts with va­ried and no­ta­ble land­forms such as steep cliffs, ex­ten­si­ve low and boggy coas­tal areas, co­ral re­efs that bor­der the coastli­ne, sea te­rra­ces, co­ves, del­tas and round bays that pro­vi­de ex­ce­llent ports. The­re are nearly 400 bea­ches that cons­ti­tu­te an im­por­tant na­tu­ral and eco­no­mic re­sour­ce on ac­count of its con­si­de­ra­ble tou­rist va­lue.

Among the bays of grea­test ex­ten­sion are Ni­pe, Nue­vi­tas and Cien­fue­gos. Ma­tan­zas bay is the dee­pest. Due to its eco­no­mic im­por­tan­ce, Ha­va­na, Ma­riel and San­tia­go de Cu­ba stand out. In the bay of Guan­tá­na­mo the­re is a US Na­val Ba­se: a te­rri­tory oc­cu­pied sin­ce the be­gin­ning of the last cen­tury.

CLI­MA­TE

The pre­do­mi­nant cli­ma­te in most of Cu­ba is warm tro­pi­cal, with a rainy sea­son in sum­mer. Ot­her ty­pes of cli­ma­te are re­por­ted in the hig­her areas of the main moun­tain ran­ges, whi­le in the southern coas­tal strip of San­tia­go de Cu­ba and Guan­tà­na­mo pro­vin­ces the­re is a re­la­ti­vely dry tro­pi­cal cli­ma­te. The cli­ma­te of the eastern re­gion is war­mer than that of the wes­tern re­gion.

Due to its geo­grap­hi­cal lo­ca­tion, Cu­ba is on a la­ti­tu­de very clo­se to the Tro­pic of Can­cer. The­re­fo­re, so­lar ra­dia­tion is very high th­roug­hout the year. Due to its long and na­rrow sha­pe, it is in­fluen­ced by the tra­de winds.

From No­vem­ber to April, chan­ges in weat­her and cli­ma­te be­co­me mo­re no­ta­ble with sharp chan­ges, as­so­cia­ted with the pas­sa­ge of fron­tal sys­tems, the an­ticy­clo­nic in­fluen­ce of con­ti­nen­tal ori­gin and cen­ters of ex­tra­tro­pi­cal low pres­su­re areas. In this sea­son, mas­ses of cold air co­ming from the north ha­ve an in­fluen­ce on the te­rri­tory, that cau­ses tem­pe­ra­tu­res lo­wer than usual.

On the con­trary, from May to Oc­to­ber the­re are only a few va­ria­tions in weat­her, with a mo­re or less mar­ked in­fluen­ce of the an­ticy­clo­ne of the North Atlan­tic. The most im­por­tant chan­ges are lin­ked to the pre­sen­ce of eas­terly wa­ves and tro­pi­cal cy­clo­nes.

Ave­ra­ge an­nual tem­pe­ra­tu­re: 24.6 ° C (76.6 ° F) Ave­ra­ge sum­mer tem­pe­ra­tu­re: 25 ° C (77 ° F) Ave­ra­ge win­ter tem­pe­ra­tu­re: 22 ° C (71.6 ° F) Re­la­ti­ve hu­mi­dity: 80% Sea­sons: the­re are two well-de­fi­ned sea­sons, the dry sea­son from No­vem­ber to April, and the rainy sea­son from May to Oc­to­ber. The ave­ra­ge rain­fall on the is­land is 1,370 mm

TI­ME ZO­NE

Stan­dard ti­me: UTC/GMT -5 hours Day­light Sa­ving Ti­me: +1 hour Com­pen­sa­tion of cu­rrent ti­me usa­ge: UTC/GMT -4 hours Day­light sa­ving ti­me starts at lo­cal official ti­me - In the early hours of Sa­tur­day March 25 to Sun­day March 26, 2018 It fi­nis­hes in the lo­cal official ti­me-in the early hours of Sa­tur­day Oc­to­ber 28 to Sun­day Oc­to­ber 29, 2018

DEMOGRAPHY

About 37% of the Cu­ban population is whi­te, of Spa­nish ori­gin and to a les­ser ex­tent French, Ita­lian, Ara­bic/le­ba­ne­se, North Ame­ri­can and Rus­sian. Ap­pro­xi­ma­tely 11% of the population is black, des­cen­ded from the dif­fe­rent Afri­can eth­nic groups brought to the is­land as sla­ves and from sub­se­quent im­mi­gra­tion from Ja­mai­ca and Hai­ti. It is con­si­de­red that 52% of the

population is mi­xed ra­ce. Po­pu­lar wis­dom sta­tes that the­re is so­met­hing Afri­can in the blood of every Cu­ban. On the ot­her hand, the des­cen­dants of Chi­ne­se im­mi­grants ma­ke up 0.1% of the population. The in­fluen­ce of the abo­ri­gi­nal population is scar­cely per­cep­ti­ble, alt­hough in the most in­tri­ca­te of the eastern re­gion the­re are com­mu­ni­ties that co­me di­rectly from the first in­ha­bi­tants of Cu­ba.

FLO­RA AND FAU­NA

Cu­ba has mo­re than 6,700 spe­cies of plants, of which 3,180 are en­de­mic and 950 are in dan­ger of ex­tin­ction. A lar­ge va­riety of tim­ber and fruit trees po­pu­la­te the fo­rests among which the cei­ba and ja­güey stand out. It is known that the is­land has thou­sands of flo­ral spe­cies, of which se­ve­ral hun­dreds are or­chids. Mo­re than 30 ty­pes of palms stand out in the Cu­ban lands­ca­pe, in­clu­ding the ro­yal palm and the cork palm, the lat­ter con­si­de­red a li­ving fos­sil.

The fau­na has mo­re than 354 spe­cies of birds, of which 29 are en­de­mic. Lar­ge num­bers of amp­hi­bians and rep­ti­les in­ha­bit the te­rri­tory, such as the se­cond sma­llest “ba­na­na frog” in the world and 46 spe­cies of li­zards.

Cu­ba has 14 spe­cies of sna­kes, being the “ma­já” the lar­gest and most com­mon. Spot­ted alli­ga­tors (mo­tea­dos) are en­de­mic to the low­lands and mars­hes, as well as the ye­llow and black cro­co­di­les that in­ha­bit mainly the Cié­na­ga de Za­pa­ta and ot­her es­tua­ries of the country. Mo­re than 900 spe­cies of fish, crus­ta­ceans, cep­ha­lo­pods and co­rals in­ha­bit the wa­ters of Cu­ba, among them is the Cu­ban gar (Atrac­tos­teus tris­toe­chus), con­si­de­red a li­ving fos­sil.

In Cu­ba, the­re are few en­de­mic mam­mals such as the hu­tias and the al­mi­quìes (So­le­no­don Cu­ba­nus), be­lie­ved to be ex­tinct un­til 2012, wild pigs and deer, as well as 27 spe­cies of bats. So­me spe­cies

of ma­ri­ne mam­mals oc­ca­sio­nally po­pu­la­te na­tio­nal wa­ters, in­clu­ding dolp­hins and ma­na­tees that are in dan­ger of ex­tin­ction.

The is­land is con­si­de­red a pa­ra­di­se for in­sects, among which mo­re than 200 spe­cies of but­ter­flies are iden­ti­fied, and at least 28 of them are en­de­mic: the Cu­ban gre­ta stands out, as well as ci­ca­das, mos­qui­toes and beetles. In Cu­ba, the­re are so­me of the sma­llest ani­mals in the world such as the but­terfly bat, the zun­zun­ci­to or “fly bird,” the sa­la­man­qui­ta gec­ko and the dwarf scor­pion.

NA­TIO­NAL SYM­BOLS FLAG

Known as “the Flag of the So­li­tary Star,” it was first hois­ted in the city of Cár­de­nas on May 19, 1850, and 19 years la­ter it was adop­ted as a na­tio­nal ban­ner on April 11, 1869 at the “Guái­ma­ro As­sembly.” It com­bi­nes the blue, red and whi­te co­lors: the th­ree blue stri­pes sym­bo­li­ze the de­part­ments in which Cu­ba was di­vi­ded in­to; the two whi­te stri­pes re­pre­sent the pu­rity and vir­tue of the Cu­bans; the red equi­la­te­ral trian­gle sym­bo­li­zes the ideals of free­dom, equality, fra­ter­nity and bloods­hed for in­de­pen­den­ce. The so­li­tary star is a sign of ab­so­lu­te free­dom.

COAT OF ARMS

It has an ogi­val brim sha­pe and is di­vi­ded in­to th­ree fields; the top one re­pre­sents Cu­ba as the “Key of the Gulf” and the ri­sing sun, the sym­bol of the emer­gen­ce of a new na­tion; the lo­wer left one re­pre­sents the de­part­ments in­to which Cu­ba was di­vi­ded; and the ro­yal palm at the lo­wer right is a sym­bol of no­bi­lity and fir­mness. The coat of arms is sup­por­ted on a beam of ele­ven rods, lin­ked by a red cross rib­bon that means the union, crow­ned by a fri­gio cap, a sym­bol of re­be­llion. The coat of arms is flan­ked by a branch of holm oak on the right and a lau­rel one on the left, re­pre­sen­ting the for­ti­tu­de and the vic­tory.

NA­TIO­NAL ANT­HEM

Its aut­hor was Pe­ru­cho Fi­gue­re­do. On Oc­to­ber 20, 1868, when for­ces from the Li­be­ra­ting Army took Ba­ya­mo, Fi­gue­re­do wro­te, whi­le sit­ting on his hor­se’s sadd­le, the ly­rics of the com­bat ant­hem that was sung for the first ti­me on that oc­ca­sion.

NA­TIO­NAL ATTRIBUTES NA­TIO­NAL FLO­WER

The whi­te gar­land-lily (Hedy­chium co­ro­na­rium), a spe­cies of jas­mi­ne en­de­mic to Cu­ba, with whi­te flo­wers and an ex­qui­si­te aro­ma. It was used by wo­men to carry hid­den mes­sa­ges du­ring the wars for the in­de­pen­den­ce of the is­land. It is a sym­bol of the de­li­cacy, gra­ce and slen­der­ness of the Cu­ban wo­man.

NA­TIO­NAL BIRD

The Cu­ban tro­gon or to­co­ro­ro (Prio­te­lus tem­nu­rus) be­longs to the Quet­zal fa­mily; its plu­ma­ge re­pro­du­ces the co­lors of the Cu­ban flag. It is en­de­mic to Cu­ba and does not en­du­re cap­ti­vity.

NA­TIO­NAL TREE

The Ro­yal Palm Tree is cha­rac­te­ri­zed by its slen­der­ness, ma­jesty and strength. It is the most abun­dant tree in Cu­ba.

SO­CIETY, CUS­TOMS AND IDIOSYNCRASY

The cha­rac­ter of its peo­ple is re­mar­ka­ble: friendly, so­li­da­ris­tic, vi­va­cious and hos­pi­ta­ble. They are the re­sult of the synt­he­sis of Spa­nish and Afri­can cul­tu­re, un­der ot­her in­fluen­ces. Cu­bans are pas­sio­na­te peo­ple and are uni­ted to their country by a deep lo­ve. They are proud to be who they are, va­lue the fa­mily and honor their

el­ders, as well as edu­ca­te their chil­dren with jus­ti­ce and lo­ve. En­ter­pri­sing by na­tu­re, they al­ways no­ti­ce a cu­rious and funny no­te in the worst si­tua­tions. Se­duc­ti­ve and sen­sual, they carry the Ca­rib­bean spi­rit in their blood.

EDU­CA­TION

In Cu­ba, the edu­ca­tion sys­tem is se­cu­lar and free. Illi­te­racy was era­di­ca­ted in 1961 with the Li­te­racy Cam­paign. At pre­sent, study is com­pul­sory un­til the ninth gra­de. The na­tio­nal edu­ca­tion sys­tem be­gins in chil­dren’s day­ca­re cen­ters, con­ti­nues in ele­men­tary schools, basic se­con­dary schools, high school ins­ti­tu­tes, tech­no­lo­gi­cal ins­ti­tu­tes and in mo­re than twenty uni­ver­sity cen­ters.

HEALTH CA­RE

The Na­tio­nal Health Ca­re Sys­tem is com­ple­tely free and fo­llows the mo­del of com­mu­nity me­di­ci­ne, roun­ded out by com­mu­nity cli­nics and cli­ni­cal sur­gi­cal hos­pi­tals in all pro­vin­ces of the country, as well as spe­cia­li­zed tea­ching af­fi­lia­te hos­pi­tals and me­di­cal ins­ti­tu­tes. Health in­di­ca­tors are com­pa­ra­ble to tho­se of de­ve­lo­ped coun­tries and li­fe expectancy at birth is among the hig­hest in the world. For tra­ve­lers the­re is a network of in­ter­na­tio­nal cli­nics and phar­ma­cies. Me­di­cal ser­vi­ces are one of the most im­por­tant li­nes of the Cu­ban eco­nomy. Due to their qua­lity and high demand, they ha­ve ma­de the is­land one of the main des­ti­na­tions for health tou­rism in the world.

SPORT

The ex­ce­llent per­for­man­ce in the sports world is de­mons­tra­ted by the lar­ge num­ber of titles ac­cu­mu­la­ted by Cu­ban ath­le­tes in­si­de and out­si­de the is­land, in re­gio­nal, Pan Ame­ri­can ga­mes, world cham­pions­hips and Olym­pics.

The na­tio­nal sport is “la pe­lo­ta” (ba­se­ball) that has a com­plex and dy­na­mic na­tio­nal se­ries, be­si­des ju­nior and chil­dren com­pe­ti­tions at na­tio­nal le­vel. Ot­her dis­ci­pli­nes such as bo­xing, vo­lley­ball, ath­le­tics, Gre­co-ro­man wrestling and judo are al­so re­mar­ka­ble and ha­ve gi­ven great lau­rels to Cu­ba.

RE­LI­GION

Ac­cor­ding to the Cons­ti­tu­tion of the Re­pu­blic, the sta­te is de­fi­ned as se­cu­lar, alt­hough in the country the Cat­ho­lic re­li­gion and the Afro-cu­ban re­li­gion pre­do­mi­na­te in their dif­fe­rent ru­les and va­riants. Ot­her prac­ti­ces and be­liefs such as Spi­ri­tism in the East of the country, Syn­cre­tic Cults and mo­re re­cently the Evan­ge­li­cal Chur­ches and Jeho­vah’s Wit­nes­ses are al­so no­te­worthy. The “Virgen de la Ca­ri­dad del Co­bre” (Vir­gin of Cha­rity from El Co­bre), the Pa­tron saint of Cu­ba, is ho­no­red and wors­hi­ped by Cu­bans whe­re­ver they may be, li­ke the Ma­rian in­vo­ca­tion or its syn­cre­tic va­riant li­ke Ochún.

CU­BAN CUI­SI­NE

Cu­ban cui­si­ne is the re­sult of an amal­gam of Abo­ri­gi­nal pro­ducts and Afri­can and Spa­nish com­po­nents, to which ele­ments of Asian and Ara­bic cui­si­ne are ad­ded in a les­ser ex­tent. The ty­pi­cal cui­si­ne va­ries ac­cor­ding to the re­gion of the country, as well as their na­mes and fla­vors. The basic ele­ments that com­po­se it are ri­ce and beans, meats and fish, and the es­sen­tial sweets, cof­fees, drinks and to­bac­cos that dress the ta­ble. So­me ty­pi­cal dis­hes are: arroz mo­ro (ri­ce and red beans), arroz con po­llo (ri­ce and chic­ken), con­grí orien­tal (ri­ce and black beans), ajia­co crio­llo, roas­ted or “aho­ga­do” pig, pi­ca­di­llo a la ha­ba­ne­ra (Ha­va­na min­ce) and tos­to­nes or cha­ti­nos (fried plan­tains), as well as drinks and in­fu­sions among which the orien­tal prú and the ali­ñao are outs­tan­ding.

SI­TES REGISTERED BY UNES­CO IN THE LIST OF HUMANITY HE­RI­TA­GE SI­TES

CUL­TU­RAL

1982 Old Ha­va­na and its Sys­tem of For­tres­ses, Ha­va­na 1988 Tri­ni­dad and the Va­lle de los In­ge­nios (The Valley of the Mills), San­cti Spí­ri­tus 1997 Cas­ti­llo de San Pe­dro de la Ro­ca, San­tia­go de Cu­ba 2000 Ar­chaeo­lo­gi­cal Lands­ca­pe of the First Cof­fee Plan­ta­tions in Sout­heas­tern Cu­ba, San­tia­go de Cu­ba 2005 His­to­ri­cal Cen­ter of Cien­fue­gos, Cien­fue­gos 2008 His­to­ri­cal Cen­ter of Ca­ma­güey, Ca­ma­güey

NA­TU­RAL

1999 Cul­tu­ral Lands­ca­pe in Va­lle de Vi­ña­les, Pi­nar del Río 1999 Gran­ma Na­tio­nal Park “Des­em­bar­co del Gran­ma” 2001 Ale­jan­dro de Hum­boldt Na­tio­nal Park, Hol­guín and Guan­tá­na­mo

IM­MA­TE­RIAL

2016 La Rum­ba (a chan­ting and dan­cing gen­re) 2018 El Pun­to Cu­bano

MASTERPIECE OF THE ORAL AND IN­TAN­GI­BLE HE­RI­TA­GE OF HUMANITY

2003 La Tum­ba Fran­ce­sa (a chan­ting and dan­cing gen­re), San­tia­go de Cu­ba

BIOSPHERE RE­SER­VES RECOGNIZED BY THE UNES­CO MAB PRO­GRAM

1985 Sierra del Ro­sa­rio, Pi­nar del Río and Ar­te­mi­sa 1987 Gua­naha­ca­bi­bes Pe­nin­su­la Na­tio­nal Park, Pi­nar del Río 1987 Ba­co­nao, San­tia­go de Cu­ba and Guan­tá­na­mo 1987 Cu­chi­llas del Toa (lo­ca­ted in Ale­jan­dro de Hum­boldt Na­tio­nal Park), Hol­guín and Guan­tá­na­mo 2000 Cié­na­ga de Za­pa­ta Na­tio­nal Park, Ma­tan­zas 2000 Bue­na­vis­ta (lo­ca­ted in Ca­gua­nes Na­tio­nal Park), Vi­lla Cla­ra, San­cti Spí­ri­tus and Cie­go de Ávi­la

THE FIRST SE­VEN VILLAGES

Foun­ded by the Ade­lan­ta­do Don Die­go Ve­láz­quez de Cué­llar in the six­teenth cen­tury. They ce­le­bra­te in this de­ca­de its half mi­llen­nium of exis­ten­ce. Ac­cor­ding to the or­der of foun­da­tion are the fo­llo­wing:

Nues­tra Se­ño­ra de la Asun­ción de Ba­ra­coa, Au­gust 15, 1511 • San Sal­va­dor de Ba­ya­mo, No­vem­ber 5, 1513 San­tí­si­ma Tri­ni­dad, Ja­nuary 1514 San­ta Ma­ría del Puer­to del Prín­ci­pe, Fe­bruary 2, 1514 • San­cti Spí­ri­tus, Ju­ne 4, 1514 • San­tia­go de Cu­ba, July 25, 1515 • San Cris­to­bal de La Ha­ba­na, No­vem­ber 16, 1519. De­cla­red Mar­vel City in 2015, and Ibe­roa­me­ri­can Ca­pi­tal of Cock­tails in 2018, Ha­va­na is pre­pa­ring to ce­le­bra­te her midd­le mi­llen­nium of exis­ten­ce.

PLA­YA PUN­TA EL HOLANDES Pe­nín­su­la de Guaha­na­ca­bi­ves

VIS­TA DE LA BAHÍA DE LA HA­BA­NA One of the lar­gest and sa­fest bays in Ame­ri­ca and the World

TO­CO­RO­RO, THE NA­TIO­NAL BIRD An en­de­mic bird of Cu­ba, it does not en­du­re li­fe in cap­ti­vity FLAG Known as the Ban­de­ra de la Estrella So­li­ta­ria “Flag of the Lo­nely Star”

MA­RI­PO­SA, THE NA­TIO­NAL FLO­WER A jas­mi­ne spe­cies en­de­mic to the Is­land

VIRGEN DE LA CA­RI­DAD DE EL CO­BRE, PA­TRON SAINT OF CU­BA Known in po­pu­lar slang as Ca­chi­ta

BO­XING Sport of great po­pu­lar roots in Cu­ba

VA­LLE DE LOS IN­GE­NIOS Of­fi­cially ca­lled San Luis Valley. True he­ri­ta­ge sour­ce of the an­cient city of Tri­ni­dad

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