New eco­no­my: Ar­ti­fi­cial in­tel­li­gence ro­bots as evi­dence of a fu­ture lost ci­vi­li­za­tion

Investir en Europe - - DOSSIER | SPECIAL FILE - Jeanne Ri­va, ré­dac­trice en chef / Edi­tor

How could IA ro­bots be the evi­dence of a hu­ma­ni­ty and not on­ly use­ful ob­ject (in the context of pro­ba­bly end of Hu­man life in 1,000 years be­cause of the Glo­bal war­ming, quo­ting Ste­phen Haw­kins* for this pes­si­mis­tic scheme(1) but maybe al­so in 100 years we should start fin­ding other pla­net to sur­vive?

The last WMO (World Me­teo­ro­gi­cal Or­ga­ni­za­tion) re­port seems to fo­cus on the pes­si­mis­tic sce­na­rio of the IPCC(2) (fo­re­cast + 4,8°c 2100) and so the sur­vey published by the Qua­ter­na­ry Science Re­views fo­re­cas­ted a po­ten­tial sea-le­vel of 3 me­ters in 2300 (+8°c)(3). And so it will be dif­fi­cult to save more than 7 bil­lion people on Earth be­cause of the ef­fects of Glo­bal war­ming but al­so the pro­blem of re­sources, pol­lu­tion and other po­ten­tial dan­gers (nu­clear threat ac­cor­ding to the doom­sday clock)(4).

In this context, IA ro­bots shouldn’t be consi­der as use­ful tools on­ly but al­so as evi­dence of hu­man ci­vi­li­za­tion.

Would it need to solve the Hard Pro­blem of conscious­ness and al­so conscious?

How to be sure they wouldn’t take wrong de­ci­sions?

What is conscious­ness?

The phi­lo­so­phers tried to de­fine it since the an­cient per­iod. In the XVII cen­tu­ry, R. Des­cartes de­fi­ned the “no­tion of thought in terms of re­flexive conscious­ness or self-awa­re­ness”(5). In the XVIII and XIX cen­tu­ry, G. W. F. He­gel de­fi­ned conscious­ness as know­ledge(6) or as a syn­the­sis as I. Kant “Conscious­ness is uni­ty being done”(6).

In the XX cen­tu­ry, B. Rus­sel de­fi­ned the conscious­ness as the re­la­tion­ship bet­ween the ob­ject and the sub­ject(). And J. P. Sartre said “All conscious­ness isn’t know­ledge on­ly” gi­ving the example of emo­tio­nal awa­re­ness(6).

I re­port some dis­cus­sions with ma­ny dif­ferent ana­lysts about this sub­ject.

The phy­si­cist Dr Ma­no­har Ru­dolph(7) de­fi­ned conscious­ness as conscious with know­ledge and so try to solve the hard pro­blem of conscious­ness by using the 4 cham­ber mo­del of P. R. Sar­kar which is a re­pre­sen­ta­tion of “the phy­si­cal and men­tal rea­li­ties arise out of a pro­cess of bi­fur­ca­tion and re­duc­tion (de­ve­lo­ping a sub­jec­tive and an ob­jec­tive realm)”. And so conscious­ness arises from a li­ve­ly in­ter­ac­tion bet­ween these states. This mo­del is a “com­plex space time me­tric” and you find a “me­ta­bo­lism bet­ween dif­ferent parts, which holds them to­ge­ther, like in an or­ga­nism”. This mo­del takes in ac­count “ex­ter­nal (phy­si­cal ac­ti­vi­ty of neu­ro­nal net­work) and in­ter­nal (psy­chic, sub­jec­tive cha­rac­ter ex­pe­rience) phe­no­me­na in­to dif­ferent spaces”.

The so­cio­lo­gist Dr Dan “is skep­ti­cal of the pro­ject of mo­de­ling Mind ma­the­ma­ti­cal­ly” be­cause ma­the­ma­ti­cal mo­dels are pro­ducts of the mind” and so li­mi­ted. (5) « Prin­cipes de Phi­lo­so­phie », 1640, quo­ted by « Conscious­ness », 14/01/2014, https://pla­to.stan­ford.edu. (6) « Conscience », En­cy­clo­pé­die phi­lo­so­phique uni­ver­selle, PUF.

(7) Doc­tor Hans-Joa­chim Ru­dolph, « Mi­cro­vi­ta : Ex­plo­ring a New Science of Rea­li­ty », Au­thor House, Berlin, 2017.

Scien­ti­fic re­search in neu­ro­lo­gy iden­ti­fies its func­tio­ning (iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of places of rea­so­ning, lan­guage, vo­lun­ta­ry mo­tor co­or­di­na­tion, bo­dy awa­re­ness and en­vi­ron­ment, mes­sage in­te­gra­tion, hea­ring cen­ter, me­mo­ry and emo­tions)(8) and the­re­fore the ce­re­bral parts par­ti­ci­pa­ting in the conscious­ness (iden­ti­fied in the pa­rie­tal lobe) thanks to the scans made on people in co­ma and those in state of awa­ke­ning. Our nerve cells (100 bil­lion neu­rons per brain) com­mu­ni­cate with each other by elec­tri­cal si­gnals via sy­napses (ter­mi­na­tions).

The more frequent the nerve im­pulse, the more the neu­ron pro­duces che­mi­cals (neu­ros­trans­mit­ters). The emo­tio­nal brain co­exists with the ra­tio­nal brain (pre­fron­tal cor­tex) and is at the root of our thoughts, ac­tions, de­sires, and mo­ti­va­tions.

In phi­lo­so­phy, Enac­ti­vism is a phi­lo­so­phi­cal concept of cog­ni­tion fo­cu­sed on how li­ving or­ga­nisms and hu­man minds in­ter­act with the en­vi­ron­ment. Maybe this theo­ry can al­so ex­plain the col­lec­tive conscious­ness.

Would AI ro­bots could have a conscious­ness?

Ma­ny people be­lieve that conscious­ness is lin­ked to the condi­tion of li­ving forms, and so their ans­wer is “no, a ma­chine, even if in­tel­li­gent, won’t be able to have a conscious­ness”. The bu­si­ness man To­ny told “a ca­me­ra is not vi­sion. It’s this qua­li­ty of conscious­ness which sets the foun­da­tion of what is real –what is mea­ning” (be­cause felt). “No code, no al­go­rithm could have mea­ning of its ar­ti­fi­cial in­tel­lect.”

The Ame­ri­can wri­ter Don be­lieves that: “where conscious­ness oc­curs spon­ta­neous­ly is pure fic­tion” be­cause “conscious­ness is an as­pect of LIFE”.

The Fin­nish ma­na­ger Juk­ka told that « the ans­wers will be found in hu­ma­nism, not in tech­no­lo­gy ». (8) source : ICM (Ins­ti­tut du cer­veau et de la moelle épi­nière)/ (Ins­ti­tute of Brain and Spi­nal Cord), France.

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