Ma¯ori has gone mains­tream

La langue mao­rie gagne en po­pu­la­ri­té

Vocable (Anglais) - - Édito Sommaire -

Re­gain de po­pu­la­ri­té pour la langue mao­rie en Nou­velle-Zé­lande.

Les Mao­ris re­pré­sentent en­vi­ron 15 % de la po­pu­la­tion néo-zé­lan­daise. Leur culture a été sé­vè­re­ment ré­pri­mée et a frô­lé l’ex­tinc­tion à plu­sieurs re­prises lorsque les co­lons eu­ro­péens se sont ins­tal­lés sur l’île au XIXe siècle. Ce n’est qu’en 1987 que le maori est de­ve­nu l'une des langues of­fi­cielles du pays. Mais les temps ont chan­gé et, au­jourd’hui, en Nou­velle-Zé­lande, tout le monde veut ap­prendre à le par­ler !

Max Smi­the­ram, 54, has at­temp­ted to learn te reo Māo­ri (the Māo­ri lan­guage) on nu­me­rous oc­ca­sions, but he has ne­ver stuck with it – until now. A pa­ke­ha [Eu­ro­pean New Zea­lan­der], Smi­the­ram at­tends free week­ly classes and prac­tises at home with his Uru­guayan part­ner, who is al­so lear­ning the lan­guage. “I had a long­stan­ding wish to learn Māo­ri. It is real­ly in­ter­es­ting to have the op­por­tu­ni­ty to un­ders­tand dif­ferent ways of thin­king and un­ders­tand more about my home,” said Smi­the­ram, an en­vi­ron­men­tal plan­ner.

1. to at­tempt ten­ter, en­tre­prendre / to stick, stuck, stuck with it s'y te­nir / to at­tend as­sis­ter à, suivre / class ici, cours / long­stan­ding de longue date / way fa­çon. 2. Smi­the­rham is not alone. Te reo is un­der­going a re­vi­val in New Zea­land, with jam-pa­cked classes and wai­ting lists now com­mon. Māo­ri lan­guage tea­chers from Au­ck­land in the North Is­land to Du­ne­din and In­ver­car­gill in the South say they are unable to meet de­mand for their ser­vices and free classes rou­ti­ne­ly draw hun­dreds of stu­dents.

A STRIKING COMEBACK

3. John McCaf­fe­ry, a lan­guage ex­pert at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Au­ck­land school of edu­ca­tion,

2. to un­der­go, un­derwent, un­der­gone connaître (fig.) / re­vi­val renaissance, re­tour / jam-pa­cked com­plet / com­mon cou­rant, ha­bi­tuel / to meet, met, met ici, ré­pondre à, sa­tis­faire / rou­ti­ne­ly ré­gu­liè­re­ment / to draw, drew, drawn at­ti­rer. says the lan­guage is thri­ving, with other in­di­ge­nous peoples tra­vel­ling to New Zea­land to learn how Māo­ri has made such a striking comeback. “It has been real­ly dra­ma­tic, the past three years in par­ti­cu­lar, Māo­ri has gone mains­tream,” he said.

4. Ac­cor­ding to Sta­tis­tics New Zea­land, the pro­por­tion of Māo­ri people able to hold an eve­ry­day conver­sa­tion in te reo de­crea­sed 3.7% 3. striking spec­ta­cu­laire / to thrive, thri­ved or throve, thri­ved or thri­ven pros­pé­rer, ga­gner en im­por­tance/po­pu­la­ri­té / people ici, peuple, tri­bu, com­mu­nau­té / dra­ma­tic spec­ta­cu­laire. 4. ac­cor­ding to d'après, se­lon / pro­por­tion pour­cen­tage, nombre / to de­crease di­mi­nuer /

bet­ween 1996 and 2013. But anec­do­tal evi­dence sug­gests num­bers of non-Māo­ri spea­kers of the lan­guage are ri­sing, as are young Māo­ri adults and pro­fes­sio­nals, who would not have been cap­tu­red in the last cen­sus.

5. Big business is on board, too. Google has laun­ched a Māo­ri ver­sion of its web­site, Vo­da­fone has hel­ped Google Maps re­cord more ac­cu­rate Māo­ri pro­nun­cia­tions, Dis­ney has re­lea­sed a Māo­ri ver­sion of the hit Po­ly­ne­sian film Moa­na, and Flet­cher Buil­ding has rol­led out bi­lin­gual si­gns on all its construc­tion sites. “There’s an in­crea­sing sense that te reo is good for iden­ti­fying your business as com­mit­ted to New Zea­land,” said Nga­hi­wi Apa­nui, chief exe­cu­tive of the Māo­ri Lan­guage Com­mis­sion.

NEW AT­TI­TUDES

6. The sta­tus of te reo as an in­crea­sin­gly ad­mi­red lan­guage – with its spea­kers gar­ne­ring res­pect – is a long way from the per­iod fol­lo­wing the se­cond world war when Māo­ri spea­kers were chas­ti­sed for using their lan­guage. Young Māo­ri re­call being bea­ten or whip­ped for spea­king te reo in schools and go­vern­ment ins­ti­tu­tions such as or­pha­nages, and at home more Māo­ri gave up on the lan­guage and lear­ned En­glish to get jobs as a vast mi­gra­tion from ru­ral to ur­ban be­gan. By the 1980s, fe­wer than 20% of Māo­ri spoke te reo.

7. Now it is ve­ry dif­ferent. Ac­cor­ding to sur­veys by Te Pu­ni Kō­ki­ri, a

anec­do­tal evi­dence (inv.) preuves anec­do­tiques, té­moi­gnages; ici, chiffres non avé­rés / to rise, rose, ri­sen aug­men­ter, croître / to cap­ture ici, re­prendre (fig.), re­pré­sen­ter / cen­sus re­cen­se­ment, sta­tis­tiques, chiffres. 5. to be on board être dans le coup / to launch lan­cer, créer / ac­cu­rate pré­cis, juste / to re­lease sor­tir / to roll out ici, in­tro­duire (aus­si, pro­duire) / si­gn pan­neau / in­crea­sing gran­dis­sant, de plus en plus pré­sent / sense sen­ti­ment / to be com­mit­ted to être engagé vis-à-vis de / chief exe­cu­tive pré­sident. 6. to gar­ner ici, ga­gner, ins­pi­rer (fig.) / a long way from bien/très loin/dif­fé­rent de / to chas­tise châ­tier, pu­nir / to re­call se sou­ve­nir / to whip fouet­ter / such as tel(les) que / or­pha­nage or­phe­li­nat / to give, gave, gi­ven up on aban­don­ner, re­non­cer à / as ici, lorsque / by ici, dans. 7. sur­vey étude, en­quête / Māo­ri pu­blic po­li­cy group, “at­ti­tudes to­wards the Māo­ri lan­guage among Māo­ri and nonMāo­ri are im­pro­ving.” Maori words such as kia ora (hel­lo), Ao­tea­roa (New Zea­land), kia ka­ha (be strong) and kai (food) have long been part of New Zea­land En­glish. But the use of others is sprea­ding. The prime mi­nis­ter, Ja­cin­da Ar­dern, re­cent­ly gave her child a Māo­ri middle name: Te Aro­ha, Aro­ha mea­ning “love”. The ges­ture was wel­co­med by tri­bal groups, who said Ar­dern was im­pro­ving re­la­tions bet­ween the go­vern­ment and Māo­ri people.

8. On New Zea­land’s na­tio­nal day, Wai­tan­gi, this year, the first 49 se­conds of Ar­dern’s speech on the sa­cred trea­ty grounds were de­li­ve­red in te reo. At Bu­ckin­gham Pa­lace in April, the prime mi­nis­ter be­gan her Com­mon­wealth toast with a Māo­ri pro­verb, in a vi­deo that has been wat­ched tens of thou­sands of times.

(Paul Green­wood/Shut­ter­stock/SI­PA)

Mao­ris wel­co­ming the Bri­tish & Irish Lions at Wai­tan­gi Trea­ty Grounds.

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