Lan­guage tips

THE ANALECTS OF CON­FU­CIUS

China Daily - - LIFE FUN -

子曰:“管仲⑴之器小哉!”或曰:“管仲俭乎?”曰:“管氏有三归⑵,官事不摄⑶,焉得俭?”“然则管仲知礼乎?”曰:“邦君树塞门⑷,管氏亦树塞门。邦君为两君之好⑸,有反坫⑹,管氏亦有反坫。管氏而⑺知礼,孰不知礼?”

The Mas­ter said, “Guan Zhong was not a great min­is­ter.” When asked if Guan Zhong was fru­gal, the Mas­ter said, “Guan Zhong had three gra­naries while his of­fi­cial du­ties were not per­formed, how could he be con­sid­ered fru­gal?” When asked if Guan Zhong knew the rites, the Mas­ter said, “Only the prince may build a wall to screen the gate of his man­sion, but Guan Zhong had one be­fore his. Only the prince may use a stand for cups to en­ter­tain his guests, but Guan Zhong used one. If he knew the rites, who does not?”

【译文】孔子说:“管仲的器量狭小得很呀!”有人便问:“他是不是很节俭呢?”孔子道:“他收取了人民的大量的­市租,他手下的人员,[一人一职,]从不兼差,如何能说是节俭呢?”那人又问: “那么,他懂得礼节么?”孔子又道:“国君宫殿门前,立了一个塞门;管氏也立了个塞门;国君设宴招待外国的君­主,在堂上有放置酒杯的设­备,管氏也有这样的设备。假若说他懂得礼节,那谁不懂得礼节呢?”

【注释】⑴管仲:春秋时齐国人,名夷吾,做了齐桓公的宰相,使他称霸诸侯。⑵三归:“三归”的解释还有:(甲)国君一娶三女,管仲也娶了三国之女(《集解》引包咸说,皇侃《义疏》等);(乙)三处家庭(俞樾《群经平议》);(丙)地名,管仲的采邑(梁玉绳《瞥记》);(丁)藏泉币的府库(武亿《群经义证》)。我认为这些解释都不正­确。郭嵩焘《养知书屋文集》卷一《释三归》云:“此盖《管子》九府轻重之法,当就《管子》书求之。《山至数篇》曰, ‘则民之三有归于上矣。’三归之名,实本于此。是所谓三归者,市租之常例之归之公者­也。桓公既霸,遂以赏管仲。《汉书·地理志》、《食货志》并云,桓公用管仲设轻重以富­民,身在陪臣,而取三归。其言较然明显。《韩非子》云,‘使子有三归之家’,《说苑》作‘赏之市租’。三归之为市租,汉世儒者犹能明之,此一证也。《晏子春秋》辞三归之赏,而云厚受赏以伤国民之­义,其取之民无疑也,此又一证也。”这一说法很有道理。我还再举两个间接证据。(甲)《战国策》一说:“齐桓公宫中七市,女闾七百,国人非之。管仲故为三归之家以掩­桓公,非自伤于民也。”似亦以三归为市租。(乙)《三国志·魏志·武帝纪》建安十五年令曰:“若必廉士而后可用,则齐桓其何以霸?”亦以管仲不是清廉之士,当指三归。

⑶摄:兼职。⑷树塞门:树,动词,立也。塞门,用以间隔内外视线的一­种东西,形式和作用可以同今天­的照壁相比。⑸好:古读去声,友好。⑹反坫:坫音店, ,用以放置器物的设备,用土筑成的,形似土堆,筑于两楹(厅堂前部东西各有一柱)之间。详全祖望《经史问答》。⑺而:假设连词,假如,假若。

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