IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) Rules for flights into clouds and low visibility, by reference to cockpit instruments and radio navigation.
ILS (Instrument Landing System) A precision instrument approach system permitting aircraft to land with low ceilings or poor visibility.
JOINT OWNERSHIP Purchase or lease of an aircraft by a number of owners, often through a partnership or limited company.
KNOT (Nautical Mile per Hour) Common measure of aircraft speed equalling 6,080 feet or about 1.15 miles. (For mph, multiply knots by 1.15.)
KTAS True airspeed, in knots.
LARGE-CABIN JETS The largest size aircraft that doesn’t require a major airport runway. Typical capacity 9-15 passengers.
LAYOVER A night spent in the middle of the trip in a city other than home base for the aircraft and crew.
LEG Describes one direction of travel between two points. Commonly used in referring to a planned itinerary.
LIGHT JETS See ‘Small-Cabin Jets’.
MACH SPEED A number representing the ratio of the speed of an airplane to the speed of sound in the surrounding air.
MAYDAY An international distress signal to indicate an imminent and grave danger that requires assistance.
MID-CABIN JETS Typical capacity 7-9 passengers.
MRO (Maintenance, Repair & Overhaul) Company licensed to provide services for the upkeep and airworthiness of airplanes.
NAUTICAL MILE Defined internationally as equivalent to 1,852 metres or 1.15 statute miles.
NDB (Non-Directional Beacon) A radio transmitter at a known location, used as an aviation or marine navigational aid.
PAN PAN International call signal for urgency, indicating uncertainty and usually followed by the nature of the alert.
PART 91 The parts of Federal Aviation Regulations on non-commercial operations covering corporate flight departments.
PART 121 The parts of Federal Aviation Regulations on scheduled airline operations, including the publication of a schedule.
PART Regulations covering 135 charter The on parts non-commercial carriers. of Federal Aviation operations
PART organisation alterations 145 Certificate on to US-registered perform allowing maintenance aircraft. an and
PATTERN around an The airfield, path at of an aircraft established traffic height and direction.
PAYLOAD beyond what Anything is required that for an its aircraft operation carries during flight.
POSITIONING from other than Ferrying originating aircraft airport. for departure
RADAR System that uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range, altitude, direction, or speed of moving and fixed objects.
RAMP The apron or open ‘tarmac’ in front of an FBO or terminal facility. This space is busy, used for deplaning, parking of aircraft, etc.
ROLL One of three axes in flight, specifying the action around a central point.
ROTATE In flight, any aircraft will rotate about its centre of gravity, a point which is the average location of the mass of the aircraft.
RUDDER Aircraft control surface attached to the rear of the vertical stabiliser (fin) of the aircraft tail. Forces the plane to veer left or right.
RUNWAY HEADING Magnetic direction corresponding to the centre line of the runway.
SLATS Small, aerodynamic surfaces on the leading edge of the wings of fixed aircraft which allow the wing to operate at a higher angle of attack.
SLIPSTREAM The flow of air driven backward by a propeller or downward by a rotor.
SMALL-CABIN JETS Typical capacity 5-8 passengers.
SQUAWK A four-digit number that a pilot dials into his transponder to identify his aircraft to air traffic controllers.
STATUTE MILE A unit of length equal to 5,280 feet.
SVS (Synthetic Vision System) A technology that uses 3D to provide pilots with intuitive means of understanding their flying environment.
TAIL NUMBER An airplane’s registration number.
TARMAC especially A a runway paved airport or an apron surface, at a hangar.
TAXI TIME Portion of the trip spent rolling between the gate, terminal, or ramp and runway.
THRUST The forward force produced in reaction to the gases expelled rearward from a jet engine. Opposite of drag.
TRAILING EDGE The rearmost edge of an airfoil.
TRANSPONDER An airborne transmitter that responds to automated air traffic control interrogation with accurate position information.
TURBINE Engine that uses compressed air to generate thrust to spin a metal shaft inside the motor, used in jet engines and turboprop aircraft.
TURBOPROP An aircraft in which the propeller is driven by a jet-style turbine rather than a piston.
VERY LIGHT JETS (VLJ) Small jet aircraft approved for single-pilot operation, maximum take-off weight of less than 10,000 lb (4,540 kg).
VFR (Visual Flight Rules) A defined set of FAA regulations covering operation of aircraft flying by visual reference to the horizon.
VOR (VHF Omnidirectional Range) Ground-based radio navigation aid.
VORTICES Regions of high velocity that develop at the tip of a wing as it flies through the air.
WIND SHEAR Large changes in either wind speed or direction at different altitudes that can cause sudden gain or loss of airspeed.
WINGLET A small, stabilising, rudder-like addition to the tips of a wing to control or employ air movement, thereby increasing fuel economy.
YAW One of the three axes in flight, specifying the side-to-side movement of an aircraft on its vertical axis.
YOKE The control wheel of an aircraft, akin to an automobile steering wheel.