IFR (In­stru­ment Flight Rules) Rules for flights into clouds and low vis­i­bil­ity, by ref­er­ence to cock­pit in­stru­ments and ra­dio nav­i­ga­tion.

ILS (In­stru­ment Land­ing Sys­tem) A pre­ci­sion in­stru­ment ap­proach sys­tem per­mit­ting air­craft to land with low ceil­ings or poor vis­i­bil­ity.

JOINT OWN­ER­SHIP Pur­chase or lease of an air­craft by a num­ber of own­ers, of­ten through a part­ner­ship or lim­ited com­pany.

KNOT (Nau­ti­cal Mile per Hour) Com­mon mea­sure of air­craft speed equalling 6,080 feet or about 1.15 miles. (For mph, mul­ti­ply knots by 1.15.)

KTAS True air­speed, in knots.

LARGE-CABIN JETS The largest size air­craft that doesn’t re­quire a ma­jor air­port run­way. Typ­i­cal ca­pac­ity 9-15 pas­sen­gers.

LAY­OVER A night spent in the mid­dle of the trip in a city other than home base for the air­craft and crew.

LEG De­scribes one di­rec­tion of travel between two points. Com­monly used in re­fer­ring to a planned itin­er­ary.

LIGHT JETS See ‘Small-Cabin Jets’.

MACH SPEED A num­ber rep­re­sent­ing the ra­tio of the speed of an air­plane to the speed of sound in the sur­round­ing air.

MAY­DAY An in­ter­na­tional dis­tress sig­nal to in­di­cate an im­mi­nent and grave dan­ger that re­quires as­sis­tance.

MID-CABIN JETS Typ­i­cal ca­pac­ity 7-9 pas­sen­gers.

MRO (Main­te­nance, Re­pair & Over­haul) Com­pany li­censed to pro­vide ser­vices for the up­keep and air­wor­thi­ness of air­planes.

NAU­TI­CAL MILE De­fined internationally as equiv­a­lent to 1,852 me­tres or 1.15 statute miles.

NDB (Non-Di­rec­tional Bea­con) A ra­dio trans­mit­ter at a known lo­ca­tion, used as an avi­a­tion or marine nav­i­ga­tional aid.

PAN PAN In­ter­na­tional call sig­nal for ur­gency, in­di­cat­ing un­cer­tainty and usu­ally fol­lowed by the na­ture of the alert.

PART 91 The parts of Fed­eral Avi­a­tion Reg­u­la­tions on non-com­mer­cial op­er­a­tions cover­ing cor­po­rate flight de­part­ments.

PART 121 The parts of Fed­eral Avi­a­tion Reg­u­la­tions on sched­uled air­line op­er­a­tions, in­clud­ing the pub­li­ca­tion of a sched­ule.

PART Reg­u­la­tions cover­ing 135 char­ter The on parts non-com­mer­cial car­ri­ers. of Fed­eral Avi­a­tion op­er­a­tions

PART or­gan­i­sa­tion al­ter­ations 145 Cer­tifi­cate on to US-reg­is­tered per­form al­low­ing main­te­nance air­craft. an and

PAT­TERN around an The air­field, path at of an air­craft es­tab­lished traf­fic height and di­rec­tion.

PAY­LOAD beyond what Any­thing is re­quired that for an its air­craft op­er­a­tion car­ries dur­ing flight.

PO­SI­TION­ING from other than Fer­ry­ing orig­i­nat­ing air­craft air­port. for de­par­ture

RADAR Sys­tem that uses elec­tro­mag­netic waves to iden­tify the range, alti­tude, di­rec­tion, or speed of moving and fixed ob­jects.

RAMP The apron or open ‘tar­mac’ in front of an FBO or ter­mi­nal fa­cil­ity. This space is busy, used for de­plan­ing, park­ing of air­craft, etc.

ROLL One of three axes in flight, spec­i­fy­ing the ac­tion around a cen­tral point.

RO­TATE In flight, any air­craft will ro­tate about its cen­tre of grav­ity, a point which is the av­er­age lo­ca­tion of the mass of the air­craft.

RUD­DER Air­craft con­trol sur­face at­tached to the rear of the ver­ti­cal sta­biliser (fin) of the air­craft tail. Forces the plane to veer left or right.

RUN­WAY HEAD­ING Mag­netic di­rec­tion cor­re­spond­ing to the cen­tre line of the run­way.

SLATS Small, aerodynamic sur­faces on the lead­ing edge of the wings of fixed air­craft which al­low the wing to op­er­ate at a higher an­gle of at­tack.

SLIPSTREAM The flow of air driven back­ward by a pro­pel­ler or down­ward by a ro­tor.

SMALL-CABIN JETS Typ­i­cal ca­pac­ity 5-8 pas­sen­gers.

SQUAWK A four-digit num­ber that a pi­lot di­als into his transpon­der to iden­tify his air­craft to air traf­fic con­trollers.

STATUTE MILE A unit of length equal to 5,280 feet.

SVS (Syn­thetic Vi­sion Sys­tem) A tech­nol­ogy that uses 3D to pro­vide pi­lots with in­tu­itive means of un­der­stand­ing their fly­ing en­vi­ron­ment.

TAIL NUM­BER An air­plane’s reg­is­tra­tion num­ber.

TAR­MAC es­pe­cially A a run­way paved air­port or an apron sur­face, at a hangar.

TAXI TIME Por­tion of the trip spent rolling between the gate, ter­mi­nal, or ramp and run­way.

THRUST The for­ward force pro­duced in re­ac­tion to the gases ex­pelled rear­ward from a jet en­gine. Op­po­site of drag.

TRAIL­ING EDGE The rear­most edge of an airfoil.

TRANSPON­DER An air­borne trans­mit­ter that re­sponds to au­to­mated air traf­fic con­trol in­ter­ro­ga­tion with ac­cu­rate po­si­tion in­for­ma­tion.

TUR­BINE En­gine that uses com­pressed air to gen­er­ate thrust to spin a metal shaft inside the mo­tor, used in jet en­gines and tur­bo­prop air­craft.

TUR­BO­PROP An air­craft in which the pro­pel­ler is driven by a jet-style tur­bine rather than a pis­ton.

VERY LIGHT JETS (VLJ) Small jet air­craft ap­proved for sin­gle-pi­lot op­er­a­tion, max­i­mum take-off weight of less than 10,000 lb (4,540 kg).

VFR (Vis­ual Flight Rules) A de­fined set of FAA reg­u­la­tions cover­ing op­er­a­tion of air­craft fly­ing by vis­ual ref­er­ence to the hori­zon.

VOR (VHF Om­ni­di­rec­tional Range) Ground-based ra­dio nav­i­ga­tion aid.

VORTICES Re­gions of high ve­loc­ity that de­velop at the tip of a wing as it flies through the air.

WIND SHEAR Large changes in ei­ther wind speed or di­rec­tion at dif­fer­ent al­ti­tudes that can cause sud­den gain or loss of air­speed.

WINGLET A small, sta­bil­is­ing, rud­der-like ad­di­tion to the tips of a wing to con­trol or em­ploy air move­ment, thereby in­creas­ing fuel econ­omy.

YAW One of the three axes in flight, spec­i­fy­ing the side-to-side move­ment of an air­craft on its ver­ti­cal axis.

YOKE The con­trol wheel of an air­craft, akin to an au­to­mo­bile steer­ing wheel.

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