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Adorn - - PUBLISHER’S NOTE - BY CYN­THIA UN­NI­NA­YAR

Alessio Boschi’s Per­sonal and Pre­cious Jour­ney

I first met ALESSIO BOSCHI at Basel­world more than a decade ago, when he was the creative di­rec­tor for an im­por­tant pearl brand. His amaz­ing cre­ations, us­ing pearls and coloured gems, were so to­tally orig­i­nal, that I have fol­lowed his pro­lific ca­reer ever since. He is truly one of the great­est de­sign­ers of his gen­er­a­tion. When you step through the door into the home of Ital­ian-born Alessio Boschi, among the first things—of many ob­jects from around the world—that com­mand at­ten­tion are sketches by the fa­mous 17th cen­tury fam­ily of artists, i Li­gari. Clearly, the artis­tic genes of this re­mark­able fam­ily have passed down four cen­turies to flour­ish to­day in one of the world’s most pas­sion­ate and creative jew­ellery de­sign­ers.

With his cel­e­brated an­ces­tors, it was only nat­u­ral that Alessio Boschi would choose to live in a home that re­flects his Ital­ian her­itage. It is lo­cated in a me­dieval vil­lage, which makes a tri­an­gle be­tween Tus­cany, Um­bria and Rome, not far from the fa­mous Civita di Bag­nore­gio, an an­cient town seem­ingly sus­pended in the sky.

Alessio’s house is also “an­tique”, with parts dat­ing back to the 15th cen­tury. “In 2005, I had the chance to pur­chase this prop­erty, which needed a lot of work,” notes Alessio. “Dur­ing restora­tion, we dis­cov­ered that the base­ment—which was orig­i­nally used to house an­i­mals—dates back to the 15th cen­tury. The main floor is 300 years old and the top floor is 150 years old.” In ex­ca­vat­ing the base­ment to make it live­able, ar­chi­tects found pieces of Re­nais­sance ce­ramic and two arches made of large stones, in­di­cat­ing that the orig­i­nal own­ers

had a cer­tain stand­ing and wealth. “You can also see the strata of lava flows over the cen­turies,” he adds. “To­day, the house is a mag­i­cal place and full of pos­i­tive en­ergy.”

If we turn the clock back a few decades, Alessio be­gan life in Rome in a house built in the early 20th cen­tury. He was a pre­co­cious child, cre­at­ing sim­ple de­signs in jew­ellery when he was only five or six. At seven, he de­vel­oped a real pas­sion for jewels af­ter vis­it­ing an ar­chae­o­log­i­cal mu­seum in Athens with his mother. But life was not easy for the young man. “I suf­fered from the di­vorce of my par­ents when I was seven,” he re­calls “and re­treated into my own world of de­sign and Na­ture—my safe zones.”

In his late teens, he at­tended the Ac­cademia di Cos­tume e di Moda in Rome where he re­ceived a Bach­e­lor’s de­gree in jew­ellery de­sign. Be­fore long, the young de­signer was winning many in­ter­na­tional prizes for his unique de­signs.

Af­ter grad­u­a­tion and to per­fect his craft, Alessio spent time in Greece, Mi­lan, Bangkok, Hong Kong and Aus­tralia work­ing for var­i­ous com­pa­nies. The ac­co­lades for his work be­gan mount­ing and, by 2013, he had been recog­nised with more than 28 awards from com­pe­ti­tions around the world for his orig­i­nal cre­ations. He then de­cided to move back to Bangkok and es­tab­lish his own com­pany, AB Jewels. He was joined in this bold ven­ture by his sis­ter, Va­le­ria, who “is in­valu­able to me and the busi­ness,” smiles Alessio.

While pro­duc­tion is done in Bangkok, where he over­seas a highly skilled team of tal­ented ar­ti­sans, Alessio re­turns to Italy as of­ten as he can. “It is a good place for in­spi­ra­tion, and I feel close to Na­ture and the amaz­ing his­tory of Italy.” This close­ness to Na­ture and his­tory is un­doubt­edly the

driv­ing force for telling sto­ries us­ing jew­ellery. Amaz­ing ex­am­ples of this sto­ry­telling can be seen in col­lec­tions such as His­tor­ica, Nat­u­ralia and Tha­lassa, among oth­ers. There is also a whim­si­cal side to Alessio’s cre­ativ­ity as seen in the Sur­prise Me lines. Multi-func­tion­al­ity is also im­por­tant to Alessio and is a part of his col­lec­tions, with in­ter­change­able rings, ear­rings, brooches, pen­dants and more.

The de­signer has a pref­er­ence for or­ganic, curved lines rather than sharp edges, as well as colour. “In mul­ti­ple shades or con­trast­ing tones, colour re­minds me of the versatilit­y and depth of life and emotions.” And while a brief glance at any Alessio Boschi piece will cap­ture its beauty, time must be spent to un­der­stand it, to de­ci­pher its mes­sages, to grasp the un­com­pro­mis­ing ge­nius be­hind it.

The core of his work in­volves great at­ten­tion to de­tail and a myr­iad of lit­tle sur­prises. Since the jew­ellery is so in­tri­cate, the de­tails are of­ten missed un­less they are pointed out. Alessio’s cre­ations are also known for their lu­dic el­e­ments, their hid­den com­part­ments and ar­tic­u­la­tions, which sug­gest an imag­i­nary jour­ney in a playful way. “I love to hide small sur­prises in my pieces,” he smiles, “where dif­fer­ent sto­ries are con­cealed in the set­tings and gal­leries and of­fer a dif­fer­ent di­men­sion. I want my cre­ations to spark cu­rios­ity and guide the wearer on a whim­si­cal jour­ney full of dis­cov­er­ies where noth­ing is or­di­nary.”

“The His­tor­ica col­lec­tion is a glimpse into a lux­u­ri­ous past,” he ex­plains, “high­light­ing in­trigu­ing sto­ries and peo­ple from the rich his­tory of Europe, the Mid­dle East and Asia.” Some of the pieces fea­ture com­plex ar­chi­tec­tural mo­tifs, while oth­ers of­fer ageold jew­ellery tech­niques to bring per­son­al­i­ties to life. He has also taken an in­spi­ra­tional “Grand Tour” of Italy with jewels evok­ing daily life in Naples, the Tower of Pisa, Rome’s Coli­seum, the gon­do­las of Venice, Verona (of Romeo and Juli­ette fame), along with the ar­chi­tec­tural de­tails and stained glass of the fa­mous Mi­lan cathe­dral and other im­por­tant Ital­ian churches and mon­u­ments. His more “worldly” trav­els speak to the del­i­cacy of Ver­sailles, the bold colours of Ra­jasthan and the geo­met­ric and flo­ral pat­terns of the Mughal era, along with so much more.

The lat­est cre­ation in the His­tor­ica col­lec­tion is the “Neo-Clas­si­cal Re­nais­sance” neck­lace/col­lar, with match­ing ear­rings. In 19th-cen­tury Em­pire style, tak­ing fash­ion cues from Josephine Bon­a­parte, with a touch of Georgian and Vic­to­rian in­flu­ences, the neck­lace holds a rare cameo carved in 1850 by the fa­mous Ro­man artist Saulini. In­spired by Thor­vald­sen’s fa­mous bas-re­lief, Saulini’s cameo is sur­rounded by rubel­lites and sup­ported by 18 strands of pink Akoya pearls and rubel­lite beads. “The dan­gling

tas­sel can be re­moved and worn as a pen­dant, while a hid­den sys­tem be­hind the re­mov­able brooch-cameo al­lows a view of Michelan­gelo’s ‘Night and Day’ at the Medici Chapel of San Lorenzo in Florence,” ex­plains Alessio.

One of the re­cent mas­ter­pieces in the His­tor­ica col­lec­tion is the “Bella Napoli” neck­lace that cel­e­brates, in ex­tra­or­di­nary de­tail, the colour­ful tra­di­tions of Neapoli­tan life—food, cof­fee, theatre, mu­sic, dance and more. Crafted in mor­gan­ite, enamel and other pre­cious gems and met­als, it even in­cludes black rhodium spots that sug­gest a burnt pizza crust af­ter it comes out of the wood-burn­ing oven.

An­other new ad­di­tion is the Pea­cock Dance col­lec­tion that evokes the ar­chi­tec­tural, dec­o­ra­tive and artis­tic el­e­ments of the nat­u­ral habi­tat of the pea­cock—In­dia. The name de­rives from the tra­di­tional Asian dance mim­ick­ing the mat­ing

dance of this beau­ti­ful bird that is per­formed in south­ern China, In­dia, Bangladesh, In­done­sia and Sri Lanka. “My in­spi­ra­tion was drawn from the pea­cock’s vivid iri­des­cent plumage, as well as the ar­chi­tec­ture of Ra­jasthan’s palaces and forts where the birds roam freely.”

The bold yet del­i­cate colours of Na­ture come to the fore in the Nat­u­ralia col­lec­tion. “Na­ture’s pal­ette is so vast that the in­spi­ra­tion is end­less,” com­ments the de­signer, “and gives me the op­por­tu­nity to fo­cus on the beauty of nat­u­ral species of flora and fauna, as well as im­pres­sive phys­i­cal phe­nom­ena such as erupt­ing vol­ca­noes, ex­plod­ing stars, blue glaciers, stun­ning sun­sets and more.” Whimsy also de­lights in a se­ries of de­light­ful rab­bits, birds and other an­i­mals, crafted from baroque pearls and colour­ful gem­stones.

On the flo­ral side of Nat­u­ralia is the mag­nif­i­cent Rose de France line. It pays homage to Queen Marie An­toinette and her love of a very spe­cial hy­brid rose that was cre­ated in her hon­our. Alessio im­mor­talises these del­i­cate flow­ers, en trem­blant, in more than 101 carats of nat­u­ral un­heated spinels, rang­ing from pur­ple to fuch­sia to pink and even blue, set upon petals of pink sap­phires, Paraiba tour­ma­lines and yel­low di­a­monds. In­di­co­l­ite and aqua­ma­rine leaves com­plete the gar­den of colour. “The de­tach­able dan­gling parts and clasp can be re­moved and worn as brooches, pen­dants or ear­rings with a sep­a­rate rose-en­graved but­ter­fly,” de­scribes the de­signer.

On a more se­ri­ous note, Alessio makes his feel­ings known about the dan­gers of cli­mate change with his de­pic­tion of po­lar bear jewels. And, on this sub­ject, he re­cently par­tic­i­pated in a part­ner­ship with

Vogue Italia, curator of “The Pro­tag­o­nist,” an ex­hi­bi­tion of sus­tain­able fine jew­ellery fea­tured at a Christie’s event in New York in De­cem­ber 2018. The cen­tral el­e­ment of this ex­hi­bi­tion was the use of the sus­tain­able tagua seed. Alessio used this ivory-like nut in his “Melt­ing Arc­tic” ring, which he hopes will raise aware­ness of global warm­ing and the ef­fect it has on all liv­ing crea­tures, espe­cially po­lar bears. A white-topaz domed “ice­berg” sits atop the white gold ring that is ac­cented by gold pieces in the shape of ici­cles and snowflakes, along with white di­a­monds and Paraiba tour­ma­line, com­ple­mented by moon­stone water droplets. In true Alessio Boschi style, a se­cret cabo­chon moon­stone ac­ti­vates the open­ing of the ice­berg, re­veal­ing a po­lar bear fam­ily carved from tagua seeds sit­ting on the melt­ing ice­bergs of lapis lazuli and druzy that sep­a­rate the mother po­lar bear from her cubs.

The Tha­lassa col­lec­tion, named af­ter the Greek word for “sea,” cap­tures life in the world’s oceans. From bejewelled sea anemones and urchins evok­ing the multi

coloured shades of the coral reef to a se­ries of playful baroque pearl and gem­stone fish, Alessio draws in­spi­ra­tion from the nat­u­ral marine world. Thanks to hid­den move­ments, the jewels ap­pear to be car­ried along by the tides. Many cre­ations also have an el­e­ment of sur­prise in their del­i­cate en­grav­ings and hand­crafted de­tails.

The de­signer’s “ac­tivist” side is also seen in a very prom­i­nent way in the Tha­lassa col­lec­tion that dis­plays his con­cern for the sur­vival of the Great White Shark, and the hor­ri­ble shark-finning prac­tices that are de­stroy­ing these mag­nif­i­cent crea­tures. “The spark of cre­ation for the Great White be­gan when I found an ex­tra­or­di­nary sil­verblue Aus­tralian South Sea Keshi pearl in the shape of a shark’s face, with a re­ces­sive bump that looks as though its mouth is open­ing. Af­ter much re­search, we fi­nally found sev­eral pearls for the shape, colour and qual­ity to re­pro­duce the shark’s fin,” he rem­i­nisces. The 6-inch pal­la­dium and 18-karat gold brooch has match­ing ear­rings that are trans­formable from shoul­der dusters to bejewelled shark fin studs, adorned with mi­cro chains dec­o­rated with baby blue Akoya pearls and dan­gling aqua­marines. And, of course, the shark holds a sig­na­ture sur­prise. “The gallery on the belly al­lows us to ob­serve marine life: oc­to­pus, sea­horse,

starfish, shells, fish, sea anemones, squid, sea­weed, crab and dif­fer­ent coral struc­tures,” he ex­plains. “Then, by putting a fin­ger­nail on a hid­den lit­tle knob, the gallery opens to re­veal a pre­cious space con­tain­ing the ear­rings.”

The most playful col­lec­tion is un­doubt­edly Sur­prise Me. “We de­cided to de­light and sur­prise with lit­tle bejewelled gift boxes in three dif­fer­ent shapes: a cylin­dri­cal one rem­i­nis­cent of vin­tage hat boxes, a del­i­cate sphere, and the tra­di­tional square one.” Even in these minia­tures, de­tails reign supreme. Once the jewel is opened, a quiv­er­ing mes­sage is re­vealed. The col­lec­tion fea­tures rings, pen­dants and chan­de­lier ear­rings, all dec­o­rated with rib­bons and bows.

Among his pro­lific of­fer­ing of orig­i­nal and re­mark­ably out­stand­ing pieces, one stands out as truly amaz­ing—The Cedar neck­lace. “I came up with the idea when I saw a batch of long, tube-like Pan­jshir emer­ald crys­tals and im­me­di­ately thought of the nee­dles on a pine tree,” he re­calls. No one had ever used emer­alds as “nee­dles,” but he rose to the chal­lenge. And, the chal­lenges were many.

First was find­ing enough of the crys­tals. Sec­ond was how to mount the stones so that they re­mained mo­bile. Here, the el­e­gant and in­ge­nious an­swer was to de­sign a spe­cial minia­ture cap with a spring that fixed the crys­tal to the branch, thus cre­at­ing the ef­fect that the pine nee­dles trem­bled on the branch. The sil­ver cap was then spe­cially coated with a com­pound to make it green. The third chal­lenge was to make the neck­lace look like an ac­tual tree branch. The so­lu­tion was to use the spe­cial Ja­panese mokume-gane met­al­work­ing tech­nique that mixes lay­ers of met­als. “It took three months of ex­per­i­men­ta­tion to ob­tain the right al­loy for each of the lay­ers, nine­teen in all,” he de­scribes, adding that he de­cided on a com­bi­na­tion of 14-karat pink gold, 18-karat white gold, 18-karat yel­low gold, pal­la­dium and 925 sil­ver. The fi­nal step was to find an acidic so­lu­tion that dis­solved the sil­ver, leav­ing a vein-like struc­ture in the con­trast­ing colours of the tree bark. The or­ange pine cones were cre­ated us­ing a mo­saic of small spe­cialty-cut spes­sar­tites, fixed to­gether. In­side the neck­lace, a sys­tem of elec­tric wires, con­nected to LED lights with change­able mi­cro bat­ter­ies (like those used in acous­tic de­vices), al­lowed the pine cones to light up, grad­u­ally chang­ing their in­ten­sity. A bril­liant and il­lu­mi­nat­ing work of wear­able art, The Cedar neck­lace and match­ing ear­rings were sold to a col­lec­tor in June 2018 af­ter be­ing shown in Basel­world.

While he loves all gems, Alessio ad­mits that he has a pref­er­ence for un­usual stones, even those that are not con­sid­ered “pre­cious”, but that are beau­ti­ful, such as ru­ti­lated quartz and cat’s-eye. He also has a fond­ness for opals and their chang­ing colours, as well as Paraiba tour­ma­line “espe­cially the Brazil­ian stones since they re­mind me of the blue-green of the ocean.”

Aside from gems, Alessio has com­mis­sioned some amaz­ing mi­cro-mo­saics from Rome’s pre-emi­nent artists, such as those used in his spec­tac­u­lar and award­win­ning Homage to the Re­nais­sance set. He is also now us­ing an­tique 19th cen­tury mi­cro-mo­saics, “which are open­ing new doors in de­sign.” One of these doors is seen in the Greek mythol­ogy in­spired Nar­cis­sus Bridge col­lec­tion, con­jur­ing the story of Nar­cis­sus who fell in love with his own re­flec­tion in a pool of water. At the cen­tre of the piece is an an­tique 1820s mi­cro-mo­saic de­pict­ing the bridge. When the top of the ring is opened, the mo­saic can be re­moved and worn as a pen­dant, leav­ing a mir­ror re­flec­tion in the base of the ring to echo the Nar­cis­sus story.

Many other new doors will surely be opened by his de­sign cre­ativ­ity, as Alessio Boschi con­tin­ues along his per­sonal and pre­cious jour­ney in the world of ex­tra­or­di­nary fine jew­ellery.

Il­lus­trat­ing Alessio Boschi’s con­cern for cli­mate change and the plight of the po­lar bear is this ring that was fea­tured in Vogue Italia’s “The Pro­tag­o­nist” ex­hi­bi­tion of sus­tain­able fine jew­ellery at a Christie’s event in New York City in De­cem­ber 2018. A white topaz domed “ice­berg” sits atop the 18-karat white gold ring, ac­cented with gold pieces in the shape of ici­cles and snowflakes, along with white di­a­monds and Paraiba tour­ma­line, com­ple­mented by moon­stone water droplets. True to the de­signer’s style, a se­cret cabo­chon moon­stone ac­ti­vates the open­ing of the ice­berg, re­veal­ing a po­lar bear fam­ily carved from tagua seeds sit­ting on the melt­ing ice­bergs of lapis lazuli and druzy that sep­a­rate the mother po­lar bear from her cubs. His­tor­i­cal, yet also with an el­e­ment of sur­prise is the por­trayal of pris­on­ers who would sigh as they marched across a bridge in Venice on their way to prison in the “Ponte dei Sospiri” (Bridge of Sighs) ring. The top of the ring opens to re­veal a des­per­ate wife say­ing good­bye as her hus­band is marched across the bridge.

Tak­ing months to com­plete, the 18-karat Nar­cis­sus Bridge ring fea­tures an 1820s an­tique mi­cro-mo­saic cen­tre of the Ponte No­men­tano, ac­cented with tsa­vorites, sap­phires, sil­li­man­ite and round, rose­cut and ta­pered di­a­monds. Among the por­tray­als of Romeo and Juli­ette cre­ated by Alessio Boschi are these ear­rings in gold, di­a­monds and pearls. Venice is a fer­tile source of in­spi­ra­tion, and one of Alessio Boschi’s favourite Vene­tian sym­bols is the gon­dola, epit­o­mised in rings and ear­rings, in gem­stones, di­a­monds and 18-karat gold. The small gold chains move, sug­gest­ing the move­ment of the gon­do­las through the water.

The de­signer’s “ac­tivist” side is seen in this Great White Shark brooch, in the Tha­lassa col­lec­tion, which he hopes will bring at­ten­tion to the hor­ri­ble shark prac­tice of shark-finning that is de­stroy­ing these mag­nif­i­cent crea­tures. The 6-inch pal­la­dium and 18-karat gold brooch/pen­dant fea­tures baroque pearls, aqua­ma­rine, in­di­co­l­ite, and di­a­monds. It comes with match­ing ear­rings that can be trans­formed from shoul­der dusters to shark-fin studs, crafted in baroque pearls, Paraiba tour­ma­line and di­a­monds, en­hanced with mi­cro chains dec­o­rated with baby blue akoya pearls. The belly of the shark is dec­o­rated with marine life and opens to re­veal a pre­cious space con­tain­ing the ear­rings.

In the Tha­lassa col­lec­tion, Alessio Boschi has cre­ated a se­ries of fish and other marine crea­tures us­ing pearls, gem­stones and di­a­monds set in 18-karat gold.

On a more whim­si­cal note, the Sur­prise Me col­lec­tion of­fers a va­ri­ety of rings, pen­dants and ear­rings, de­pict­ing dif­fer­ent shapes of gift boxes in 18-karat gold em­bel­lished with gem­stones and di­a­monds. With a push of a but­ton the boxes pop open, re­veal­ing a mes­sage en trem­blant.

Pay­ing homage to Queen Marie An­toinette, the flo­ral side of the Nat­u­ralia col­lec­tion is seen in the mag­nif­i­cent Rose de France line. The flow­ers, en trem­blant, fea­ture more than 101 carats of nat­u­ral un­heated spinels, set on petals of pink sap­phires, Paraiba tour­ma­lines and yel­low di­a­monds. The leaves are com­posed of in­di­co­l­ite and aqua­ma­rine. This im­age shows the versatilit­y and trans­forma­bil­ity of the set.

The Jewel of Ra­jasthan ring in Paraiba, one of Alessio’s favourite gem­stones.

Top left: Alessio Boschi and his sis­ter Va­le­ria Boschi; on his lapel is the chrysan­the­mum brooch, com­posed of baroque pearls and gem­stones.

Top right: Hang­ing on the walls of his an­cient Ital­ian home are sketches by the fa­mous 17th cen­tury fam­ily, i Li­gari, an­ces­tors of Alessio Boschi.

Evok­ing the style of In­dia are these Ma­haraja Fresco ear­rings and pen­dants in a va­ri­ety of gem­stones set in 18-karat gold.

Left: A book about mem­bers of the i Li­gari fam­ily and their work.

Break­fast in Jaipur rings and ear­rings, in 18-karat gold, emer­alds, pearls and di­a­monds. In­spi­ra­tion for Pea­cock Dance in the His­tor­ica col­lec­tion came from the bird’s iri­des­cent plumage, cap­tured in vivid gem­stones in 18-karat gold, set against a back­drop of ar­chi­tec­tural and dec­o­ra­tive el­e­ments found in In­dia.

With a touch of whimsy, baroque pearls, gem­stones and di­a­monds come to­gether to cre­ate an adorable se­ries of rab­bit brooches, in the Nat­u­ralia col­lec­tion.

The Star of the Taj, in­spired by the Taj Ma­hal and its bold lines. Un­der­neath is a gold carv­ing de­pict­ing the re­mark­able mon­u­ment.

One of the more re­mark­able jewels to come out of Alessio’s “Grand Tour” of Italy is the Coli­seum ring, crafted in 18-karat gold, gem­stones and di­a­monds, em­bel­lished with de­tails of the Ro­man city.

In this Plumes neck­lace, shim­mer­ing opal picks up the colours of the other gems in the neck­lace, crafted in 18-karat gold.

Fas­ci­nated by the colours, cul­ture and ar­chi­tec­ture of In­dia, the de­signer cre­ated a num­ber of pieces, such as this Ma­ha­rani neck­lace and ear­rings in emer­alds, di­a­mond, gold and pearls.

The Cedar neck­lace and ear­rings is an amaz­ing com­bi­na­tion of art and tech­nol­ogy. Emer­ald crys­tals make up the mo­bile pine nee­dles and spe­cial­ty­cut spes­sar­tites com­bine to cre­ate the pine cones. LED lights il­lu­mi­nate the nee­dles, and the “bark-like” branch is made from the Ja­panese mokumegane met­al­work­ing tech­nique.

The new­est ad­di­tion to the His­tor­ica col­lec­tion is this Neo-Clas­si­cal Re­nais­sance neck­lace/ col­lar, with match­ing ear­rings. The cen­tre of the neck­lace is a rare cameo carved in 1850 by the fa­mous Ro­man artist Saulini ac­cented with rubel­lites and Akoya pearls. A hid­den sys­tem be­hind the re­mov­able broochcame­o al­lows a view of Michelan­gelo’s ‘Night and Day’ at the Medici Chapel of San Lorenzo in Florence. The tas­sel can be worn alone as a pen­dant.

The award-winning spec­tac­u­lar Homage to the Re­nais­sance set show­cases re­mark­able mi­cro-mo­saics, adorned with pearls and rubel­lites. The ear­rings fea­ture lock­ets that are opened to re­veal in­tri­cate mi­cro-mo­saic paint­ings of fa­mous Ital­ian mo­tifs, in­clud­ing Michelan­gelo’s David, with no de­tail spared. The neck­lace’s 18 strands of rubel­lite beads and pearls hold a locket fea­tur­ing mi­cro­mo­saic paint­ings of the dome of Florence’s Cathe­dral of Santa Maria del Fiore and Ca­te­rina de’ Medici, re­gent of France in 1611.

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