EVOLV­ING TRENDS OF AR­CHI­TEC­TURE IN IN­DIA

Architecture + Design - - Calicut Practices - Text by: Ar Babu Che­rian

Dur­ing the pe­riod of the 1990s, the con­struc­tion in­dus­try started fac­ing tremen­dous changes. The con­ven­tional way of de­sign is be­ing re­placed by the up­cy­cling of ma­te­ri­als, col­lab­o­ra­tive de­sign, less em­pha­sis on the di­vi­sion be­tween pri­vate and pub­lic spa­ces and more im­por­tance to green pock­ets. Only a true ar­chi­tect can fore­see the needs of the fu­ture and de­sign spa­ces ahead of their times.

Zon­ing in Cities: Re­cently a large of num­ber of cities, which ini­tially had fixed des­ig­nated ar­eas for res­i­den­tial, com­mer­cial and in­dus­trial zones started re­duc­ing with the ad­vent of mi­cro cities that con­sist of all above- men­tioned ameni­ties in a shorter ra­dius. These mi­cro- cities take care of the waste dis­posal, com­post­ing and re­cy­cling. They also of­fer pub­lic fa­cil­i­ties which re­duce the traf­fic to a great ex­tent.

Col­lab­o­ra­tive De­sign: De­sign method­ol­ogy as we are prob­a­bly aware of is go­ing to van­ish, and the role of ar­chi­tects in the in­dus­try might be al­to­gether dif­fer­ent from what we see to­day. Pros in, for in­stance, the var­i­ous fields in ar­chi­tec­ture will end up be­ing a team in de­sign stu­dios, tak­ing out com­plex ven­tures that re­quire learn­ing from var­i­ous fields.

Star­chi­tects: The idea of star­chi­tects is prob­a­bly go­ing to ar­rive at an end, as the clients started de­mand­ing for spa­ces that are more eco- friendly, en­ergy- ef­fi­cient, rather than lux­u­ri­ous eye catchy struc­tures, that are dif­fi­cult to main­tain.

In­flu­ence from the Past: Tra­di­tional ar­chi­tec­ture is play­ing a ma­jor role not only in the field of ar­chi­tec­ture but also the life­style and cul­ture in the built form. Tra­di­tional ma­te­ri­als are used in mod­ern tech­niques and vice versa. It

is re­flected in ad­di­tion of an­tique crafts, fur­ni­ture, colo­nial de­sign and in­flu­ences on de­sign and cul­ture from other coun­tries is an off­shoot to this trend.

Ver­ti­cal Zon­ing: One of the main chal­lenges faced by ur­ban plan­ners is the scarcity of land in cities. It is due to a large amount of mi­gra­tion of peo­ple hap­pen­ing from ru­ral to ur­ban ar­eas. We need poli­cies to in­crease af­ford­able ur­ban hous­ing. As peo­ple find ex­pen­sive to find hous­ing within the city, they were forced to move to the suburbs. This cre­ates a large amount of traf­fic from the city to the subur­ban ar­eas. One of the so­lu­tions to the is­sue is by pro­mot­ing af­ford­able ver­ti­cal growth and mixed- used de­vel­op­ment.

Sus­tain­able Homes: The term ‘ sus­tain­able home’ is heard quite a bit re­cently. It is more than just re­cy­cling of waste ma­te­ri­als, true sus­tain­abil­ity is made up of many facets, from build­ing ma­te­ri­als to the use of re­new­able en­ergy sources to de­sign that strives for ef­fi­ciency and har­mony with the sur­round­ing en­vi­ron­ment. A sus­tain­able build­ing is de­signed, con­structed and op­er­ated to min­imise the im­pacts on the en­vi­ron­ment. It is achieved through prac­tices like re­duced en­ergy con­sump­tion, wa­ter con­ser­va­tion and waste re­cy­cling. In re­cent years, in­creas­ing num­bers of Indians have started mak­ing ef­forts to min­i­mize both en­vi­ron­men­tal im­pact and fi­nan­cial out­lay by out­fit­ting their homes with sus­tain­able tech­nol­ogy. The

re­sult­ing boom in sus­tain­able build­ing is driv­ing new levels of ar­chi­tec­tural in­no­va­tion.

Smart Homes also known as home au­toma­tion al­lows the users to con­trol their house with a sin­gle swipe or a tap. It can con­trol the light­ing, tem­per­a­ture, ap­pli­ances and even main­tain the se­cu­rity. The smart home sys­tem of­ten op­er­ates to­gether, shar­ing cus­tomer us­age and data among them­selves, ac­tions are based on users’ pref­er­ences.

Sky­lights: Dou­bling up as an over­head shad­ing sys­tem and re­duc­ing the need for ar­ti­fi­cial light­ing, the shad­ows– these shades cast make them look very stylish. The pass­ing sun adds on to the beauty of this ar­chi­tec­ture trend.

Open Spa­ces: Open spa­ces have changed over the pe­riod of time. They are es­sen­tial for leisure ac­tiv­i­ties, or­ga­nized sports and cul­tural en­deav­ours. It is widely seen in the mod­ern plans where kitchens ex­tend to other com­mon space in the house, even din­ing ar­eas ex­tend­ing into the por­ti­cos. These mul­ti­func­tional de­signs not only ben­e­fit ev­ery­day liv­ing but also add depth to small spa­ces.

In­cre­men­tal Hous­ing: It is a well- or­dered process which the own­ers or the users con­trol the ex­pan­sion of their houses based on their needs and re­sources. In­cre­men­tal hous­ing is also known as a starter house, phased- de­vel­op­ment house and owner- driven house. It pro­vides a se­cure ti­tle and max­i­mum flex­i­bil­ity in hous­ing de­ci­sions. City ex­pan­sions will be­come more pre­dictable and funds is­sued for this de­vel­op­ment are ef­fec­tively used.

Star­chi­tects

Col­lab­o­ra­tive de­sign

Zon­ing in cities

Sus­tain­able Homes

Ver­ti­cal Zon­ing

In­flu­ence from the past

Smart Homes

Sky­lights

Open Spa­ces

In­cre­men­tal Hous­ing

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