An­a­lyt­i­cal in­stru­ments - boon for clin­i­cal di­ag­nos­tics sec­tor

BioSpectrum (India) - - BIO CONTENT - YOSHIYUKI FUJINO, Man­ag­ing Di­rec­tor Shi­madzu An­a­lyt­i­cal (In­dia) Pvt Ltd

Sci­en­tific ad­vances in in­stru­ment tech­no­log­i­cal change are im­por­tant driv­ers of re­cent eco­nomic per­for­mance in In­dia. This has led to the im­prove­ments in the qual­ity of life in many ways. It has helped in de­vel­op­ing new ma­te­ri­als with bet­ter physic­o­chem­i­cal prop­er­ties, test­ing en­vi­ron­men­tal pol­lu­tants at very low level, an­a­lyz­ing the food for con­tam­i­nants, tox­ins etc., to de­velop new drug mol­e­cules and ther­a­pies for cur­ing dis­eases and many more. Some of the main fea­tures of this trans­for­ma­tion are the grow­ing im­pact of health care sec­tion. The mid­dle-class pop­u­la­tion in In­dia is in­creas­ing, this pop­u­la­tion is more cau­tious about the health of their own and their dear ones.

Hence rou­tine health checkup, di­ag­no­sis of the dis­ease is done on pri­or­ity. How­ever, the dis­eases re­lated to the present life­style are on in­crease; on the other hand, the pop­u­la­tion in the back­ward area are still strug­gling for the proper health care at their doorstep. There is a chal­lenge to meet the de­mands of this real sit­u­a­tion. The ad­vance­ment in the re­li­able di­ag­no­sis in­stru­ments, the avail­abil­ity of trained man power and proper spread of the di­ag­no­sis cen­ters will be able to ad­dress the is­sues. The Govern­ment of In­dia has plans to over­come these chal­lenges.

The con­ven­tional Im­munoas­say meth­ods have some lim­i­ta­tions: the ac­cu­racy and hence re­li­a­bil­ity is poor, there is one test per dis­ease or disor­der, the new test can­not be added. While an­a­lyt­i­cal in­stru­ments are ac­cu­rate and many tests or disor­ders can be mea­sured by us­ing a same sam­ple.

The Gas Chro­matog­ra­phy (GC) with Mass Spec­trom­e­ter (MS) or Liq­uid Chro­matog­ra­phy (LC) with MS have been suc­cess­fully em­ployed as the best an­a­lyt­i­cal tools in clin­i­cal di­ag­nos­tics.

MS is a tech­nique that mea­sures ions in the gaseous state. Sam­ples are in­tro­duced into an ion source, ion­ized and then sep­a­rated in a mass an­a­lyzer ac­cord­ing to their mass-to-charge ra­tio (m/z). In terms of chro­matog­ra­phy and mass spec­trom­e­try, ini­tially GC-MS was used for bi­o­log­i­cal anal­y­sis but GC needs a volatile an­a­lyte mean that ex­trac­tion and deriva­ti­za­tion pro­to­cols were needed for anal­y­sis of the po­lar, ther­mally la­bile and in­volatile biomolecules found in clin­i­cal sam­ples. LC is much more ap­pro­pri­ate sep­a­ra­tion tech­nique for these mol­e­cules found in bi­o­log­i­cal sam­ples. It also re­duces the need for deriva­ti­za­tion to volatilize the mol­e­cules. It is the cou­pling of LC and MS that led to the adop­tion of clin­i­cal MS. The GCMS is be­ing used for some spe­cific ap­pli­ca­tions, even if deriva­ti­za­tion is re­quired. The Tan­dem Mass Spec­trom­e­try (MS/MS) can pro­vide the speed in ad­di­tion to in­crease in speci­ficity and sen­si­tiv­ity. Triple Quadrupole (TQ) MS with GC and LC has great ad­van­tage over Sin­gle Quad (SQ) MS sys­tem.

The MS can be also con­nected to In­duc­tively Cou­pled Plasma (ICP) Atomic Emis­sion Spec­troscopy, (ICP-AES) for di­ag­no­sis of el­e­ments in clin­i­cal sam­ples. The ICP with MS (ICP-MS) gives a very high sen­si­tiv­ity and speci­ficity for the anal­y­sis of toxic and other es­sen­tial el­e­ments in clin­i­cal sam­ples.

With unique Ul­tra-Fast MS, which pro­vides Ul­tra -Fast Scan­ning and Ul­tra-Fast Switch­ing ca­pa­bil­ity, Shi­madzu has im­merged as one of the lead­ing player in Clin­i­cal Di­ag­nos­tic with sev­eral in­stal­la­tions in dif­fer­ent clin­i­cal labs.

With huge Data Base for me­tab­o­lites avail­able, the time is saved for de­vel­op­ing the method/s. The fol­low­ing meth­ods are avail­able for clin­i­cal di­ag­no­sis:

1. New Born Screen­ing by Tan­dem LCMS

2. In­born Er­ror of Meta­bolic disor­ders by GC-MS

3. Vi­ta­mins D2/D3 by LC-MS

4. Ther­a­peu­tic Drug Mon­i­tor­ing (TDM) by LC-MS/MS

5. Ap­pli­ca­tions in the field of Foren­sic Tox­i­col­ogy by LC-MS/MS 6. Anal­y­sis of Steroids by LC-MS/MS 7. Anal­y­sis of Cat­e­cholamines by LC-MS/MS

8. Anal­y­sis of toxic el­e­ments such as As, Pb, Hg, Cd, etc. by us­ing ICPMS.

It is a glimpse of the fu­ture…… Ul­ti­mately to pro­vide more ac­cu­rate analy­ses and bet­ter pa­tient care.

YOSHIYUKI FUJINO,

Man­ag­ing Di­rec­tor Shi­madzu An­a­lyt­i­cal (In­dia) Pvt Ltd

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