Analytical instruments - boon for clinical diagnostics sector
Scientific advances in instrument technological change are important drivers of recent economic performance in India. This has led to the improvements in the quality of life in many ways. It has helped in developing new materials with better physicochemical properties, testing environmental pollutants at very low level, analyzing the food for contaminants, toxins etc., to develop new drug molecules and therapies for curing diseases and many more. Some of the main features of this transformation are the growing impact of health care section. The middle-class population in India is increasing, this population is more cautious about the health of their own and their dear ones.
Hence routine health checkup, diagnosis of the disease is done on priority. However, the diseases related to the present lifestyle are on increase; on the other hand, the population in the backward area are still struggling for the proper health care at their doorstep. There is a challenge to meet the demands of this real situation. The advancement in the reliable diagnosis instruments, the availability of trained man power and proper spread of the diagnosis centers will be able to address the issues. The Government of India has plans to overcome these challenges.
The conventional Immunoassay methods have some limitations: the accuracy and hence reliability is poor, there is one test per disease or disorder, the new test cannot be added. While analytical instruments are accurate and many tests or disorders can be measured by using a same sample.
The Gas Chromatography (GC) with Mass Spectrometer (MS) or Liquid Chromatography (LC) with MS have been successfully employed as the best analytical tools in clinical diagnostics.
MS is a technique that measures ions in the gaseous state. Samples are introduced into an ion source, ionized and then separated in a mass analyzer according to their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z). In terms of chromatography and mass spectrometry, initially GC-MS was used for biological analysis but GC needs a volatile analyte mean that extraction and derivatization protocols were needed for analysis of the polar, thermally labile and involatile biomolecules found in clinical samples. LC is much more appropriate separation technique for these molecules found in biological samples. It also reduces the need for derivatization to volatilize the molecules. It is the coupling of LC and MS that led to the adoption of clinical MS. The GCMS is being used for some specific applications, even if derivatization is required. The Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS) can provide the speed in addition to increase in specificity and sensitivity. Triple Quadrupole (TQ) MS with GC and LC has great advantage over Single Quad (SQ) MS system.
The MS can be also connected to Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, (ICP-AES) for diagnosis of elements in clinical samples. The ICP with MS (ICP-MS) gives a very high sensitivity and specificity for the analysis of toxic and other essential elements in clinical samples.
With unique Ultra-Fast MS, which provides Ultra -Fast Scanning and Ultra-Fast Switching capability, Shimadzu has immerged as one of the leading player in Clinical Diagnostic with several installations in different clinical labs.
With huge Data Base for metabolites available, the time is saved for developing the method/s. The following methods are available for clinical diagnosis:
1. New Born Screening by Tandem LCMS
2. Inborn Error of Metabolic disorders by GC-MS
3. Vitamins D2/D3 by LC-MS
4. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) by LC-MS/MS
5. Applications in the field of Forensic Toxicology by LC-MS/MS 6. Analysis of Steroids by LC-MS/MS 7. Analysis of Catecholamines by LC-MS/MS
8. Analysis of toxic elements such as As, Pb, Hg, Cd, etc. by using ICPMS.
It is a glimpse of the future…… Ultimately to provide more accurate analyses and better patient care.
Managing Director Shimadzu Analytical (India) Pvt Ltd