India being a tropical country, it has variety of seasons where each season not only comes up with its own uniqueness but also brings with it its own set of diseases and health issues. We humans have an inherent mechanism to maintain a stable body temperature by regulating certain metabolic processes. (Hence referred as warm blooded creatures) Monsoon usually starts during July and lasts till September. The monsoons bring a relief from the scorching heat of summer, but it also bring various maladies. Here are some common diseases of monsoon. Various mosquito borne infections like Malaria, Dengue, Chikungunya are at peak. The dampness, and stagnant water are breeding grounds for mosquitoes.Common cold,Gastroenteritis, jaundice,skin rashes, Typhoid, Cholera, Leptospirosis are also common.
Influenza (Common Cold)
Common cold is one of the most commonly occurring disease. It is highly contagious disease due to the spread of virus in the air which infects the upper respiratory tract and thus affects the nose and the throat. Symptoms involve runny or stuffy nose, body ache, throat irritation and fever. Young children,elderly, pregnant, with comorbid diseases and immunocompromised are more prone for complications to such infections. Due to change in temperature, immunity of individual falls and simultaneously viruses also become more virulent. General duration of a viral fever lasts from 3 to 7 days, severity of the fever being the highest in the first three days. In case of complicated symptoms such as vomiting, loose stools, any bleeding or fever above 103°F should sought medical help.
Enterovirus and Rotavirus(In children) are main causes of infective diarrhoea. There’re many research showed that the risk of diarrhoea caused by Rotavirus take 27% (in developing countries rate is up to 50%). Viral Gastroenteritis and food poisoning are quite common during the monsoon season, and the high humidity helps in the growth of diseasecausing bacteria. The general symptoms of gastroenteritis are stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea,fever, malaise and weakness .
It is a common food or waterborne disease. It can be a result of Hepatitis A and E infection. The visible symptoms include, yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, light-coloured stools, dark-coloured urine and itchy skin.
The accumulation of too much sweat in the clothes and constant rubbing or wearing the wet clothes for a prolonged period, lead to itching, Skin redness ,fungal infections, viral infections (chicken pox,herpes); and other skin conditions like acne, boils, folliculitis and various other skin allergies are prone in this season.
Inflammation of intestine primarily the colon is termed as dysentery. The dysentery bacteria (Shigella), develops diseases by endotoxin and exotoxin, which may cause headache, body ache, malaise, abdominal pain, rashes, and diarrhoea with blood. In severe cases it may also lead to intestinal perforations, respiratory infections and anaemia.
Diseases like Cholera, is an infectious disease that causes severe watery diarrhoea, leading to severe dehydration and even death if untreated. It is caused by eating food or drinking water contaminated with
Dr. Srikant Sharma, Senior Consultant Medicine, Moolchand Medcity, Lajpat Nagar, New Delhi.