Sources and Fac­tors con­tribut­ing to­wards AMD gen­er­a­tion

Chemical Industry Digest - - Waste Treatment -

Be­fore go­ing into the as­pects re­lated to the causes and im­pact that AMD has on the en­vi­ron­ment, it is im­por­tant to un­der­stand the sources and fac­tors that drive AMD gen­er­a­tion. The sources of AMD can be two-fold: pri­mary and sec­ondary (Ak­cil and Koldas, 2006). The pri­mary and sec­ondary sources are pre­sented in Fig.1.

Sim­i­larly, there are a num­ber of fac­tors that play a role in AMD gen­er­a­tion. Ak­cil and Koldas (2006) have listed the fac­tors that play an im­por­tant role in acid gen­er­a­tion in AMD. They are as fol­lows: (1) Mi­cro­bial ac­tiv­ity; (2) Ac­ti­va­tion en­ergy (chem­i­cal) re­quired to ini­ti­ate acid gen­er­a­tion; (3) Ac­tiv­ity of fer­ric iron; (4) De­gree of sat­u­ra­tion with wa­ter; (5) Con­cen­tra­tion of oxy­gen in wa­ter phase; (6) Con­tent of oxy­gen in the gas phase (if sat­u­ra­tion is less than 100%); (7) pH; the sur­face area of metal sul­phide ex­posed to air or wa­ter and (8) Tem­per­a­ture.

Fig.1. Sources of AMD (adapted with mod­i­fi­ca­tion from Ak­cil & Koldas, 2006)

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