TOE

Evo India - - GE­OM­E­TRY EX­PLAINED -

Toe is the an­gle that the wheels point in re­la­tion to the car’s di­rec­tion of travel. Toe-in is when the front of the wheel is an­gled slightly in­wards; toe-out is when the wheel is an­gled away from the car.

The front wheels’ toe an­gles are ad­justable; this is es­sen­tial for set­ting the track­ing so the car drives straight. Rear toe-an­gle ad­just­ment is only com­mon­place on multi-link sus­pen­sion set­ups and the range of ad­just­ment is less.

The­o­ret­i­cally the ideal toe an­gle is zero, i.e. with the wheels point­ing ex­actly in the di­rec­tion of travel. This cre­ates lower rolling re­sis­tance, re­duces tyre wear and op­ti­mises ef­fi­ciency. Yet most cars have a cer­tain de­gree of front toe-in: front or rear, it aids straight-line sta­bil­ity.

Toe-out can make a car feel ner­vous, but this can be used to im­prove agility; on high per­for­mance front-wheel-drive mod­els it also helps re­duce un­der­steer.

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