The process of investigation into crime and prosecution of criminals needs to be protected from interference by politicians,
Matters will get worse unless this practice is checked; of this, there is no sign. Bollywood has extolled “encounters” and “encounter specialists” in a good few blockbusters without a word of criticism from any quarter. It reflects Indian society’s indifference, if not approval. It all began in Punjab in the reign of Partap Singh Kairon. One of the volumes of Selected Works of Jawaharlal Nehru has his Note on encounters. I owe to my friend Ravi Nair of the South Asia Human Rights Documentation Centre in New Delhi a huge debt for helping me with documents on the subjects. His research is world class.
In 2017, Zaid Ra’ad Al Hussein, United Nations Commissioner for Human Rights, published, under his foreword, an updated version of the original U.N. Manual on the Effective Prevention of Extralegal, Arbitrary and Summary Executions of 1991, which through widespread usage became known as the Minnesota Protocol. Like the original, this updated version supplements the U.N. Principles on the Effective Prevention and Investigation of Extralegal, Arbitrary and Summary Executions (1989), which remains an important part of the international legal standards for the prevention of unlawful deaths and the investigation of potentially unlawful deaths. The original Minnesota Protocol was drafted through an expert process led by the Minnesota Lawyers International Human Rights Committee, motivated by an awareness among civil society actors that there was no clear international reference point at the time to act as either a practical guide for those tasked with conducting investigations into suspicious deaths, or as a norm against which to evaluate such investigations.
In 2012, civil society groups submitted more than 1,500 cases of alleged extrajudicial killings in Manipur to the Supreme Court of India.