Diabetes Mellitus (DM 2) is an epidemic on the rise. 80 % of patients with DM 2 are obese or overweight, and weight reduction is one of the most efficient ways to achieve control of this illness. Research shows that there are intestinal hormones that have a striking effect on the pancreas and insulin secretion, especially in response to food intake. On the basis of this, Brazilian surgeon Dr Aureo de Paula, devised a laparoscopic operation that is proving to be helpful in controlling diabetes, and avoiding future diabetic complications. Here, a long segment of the ilium (ending portion of small intestine) is shifted to the upper small intestinal area, where food particles reaching immediately after the meal can cause an immediate secretion of a hormone, GLP-1, which acts on the B-Cells of the pancreas to secret insulin, to immediately control blood sugar. If there is no intake of food, this will not happen, so there is no danger of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). This operation, called the Ileal Transposition, is an ideal for surgical cure of diabetes in non-morbidly obese patients also, as there is no mal absorptive element leading to the weight loss. Patients can stop all medicines within a few months, at times even within two to four weeks post the surgery. The only lifestyle change required is that, patients need to consume smaller portions of food at one time to enjoy a disease-free, longer and healthier life.