THE 12 PRINCIPLES OF PERMACULTURE
Observe and interact:
Recognise local conditions, learn about rainfall patterns, visit other local gardens.
Catch and store energy:
Figure out ways to conserve resources, particularly water; this includes rainwater harvesting, recycling grey water etc.
Obtain a yield:
Design a system that promotes self-reliance. Yield also covers the exchange of skills and information from one gardener to another.
Apply self-regulation and accept feedback:
Replant unproductive areas, improve soil for future generations, plant perennials.
Use and value renewable resources and services:
Grow trees for shade, to build homes and as fuel.
Produce no waste:
Be frugal, reuse and use less.
Design from patterns to details:
Mimic patterns in nature for inspiration. Plants and animals must be integrated in the design system to mutually benefit.
Integrate rather than segregate:
Place plants together in ways that help cooperate rather than compete.
Small and slow solutions:
Understand that are no quick fixes or immediate returns. Yields will be slow, but every step must be practical and energy sufficient.
Use and value diversity:
Feature new varieties along with old favourites to create balance.
Use edges and value the marginal:
Make the most of available space, through unusually shaped flower beds, vines as boundary walls etc.
Creatively respond to change:
Adapt to the shifting climate patterns, pest populations, and other external forces. All solutions must be sustainable.