The Wizard of Oz is ‘most in­flu­en­tial’ film of all time

Hindustan Times (Chandigarh) - City - - HTCITY LIFESTYLE - PTI

The Wizard of Oz is the most in­flu­en­tial film of all time, fol­lowed by Star Wars and Psy­cho, ac­cord­ing to a study. Re­searchers at the Univer­sity of Turin in Italy cal­cu­lated an in­flu­ence score for 47,000 films listed on the In­ter­net Movie Data­base (IMDB).

The score was based on how much each film had been referenced by sub­se­quent films. The study found that the top 20 most in­flu­en­tial films were all pro­duced be­fore 1980 and mostly in the US. The Wizard of Oz is a 1939 mu­si­cal fan­tasy film.

“We pro­pose an al­ter­na­tive method to box-of­fice tak­ings — which are af­fected by fac­tors be­yond the qual­ity of the film such as ad­ver­tis­ing and distri­bu­tion — and re­views — which are ul­ti­mately sub­jec­tive — for analysing the suc­cess of a film,” said Livio Bioglio, lead au­thor of the study. “We have de­vel­oped an al­go­rithm that uses ref­er­ences be­tween movies as a mea­sure for suc­cess, and which can also be used to eval­u­ate the ca­reer of di­rec­tors, ac­tors and ac­tresses, by con­sid­er­ing their par­tic­i­pa­tion in top­scor­ing movies,” Bioglio said.

Ap­ply­ing the al­go­rithm to di­rec­tors, leg­ends such as Al­fred Hitch­cock, Steven Spiel­berg, and Stan­ley Kubrick ranked third, fifth and sixth re­spec­tively.

When the re­searchers used an­other ap­proach to re­move the bias of older movies — which, be­ing pro­duced ear­lier, can po­ten­tially in­flu­ence a greater num­ber of sub­se­quent films — Hitch­cock, Spiel­berg, and Brian De Palma oc­cu­pied the top spots in­stead.

When ap­plied to ac­tors, the al­go­rithm ranked Sa­muel L Jack­son, Clint East­wood, and Tom Cruise as the top three.

The re­searchers no­ticed a strong gen­der bias to­wards male ac­tors; the only fe­male in the top ten was Lois Maxwell, who played the role of Miss Moneypenny in the James Bond fran­chise. “The scores of top-ranked ac­tresses tend to be lower com­pared to their male col­leagues,” Bioglio said. “The only ex­cep­tions were mu­si­cal movies, where re­sults show mod­er­ate gen­der equal­ity, and movies pro­duced in Swe­den, where ac­tresses ranked bet­ter com­pared to ac­tors,” Bioglio said.

To cal­cu­late the in­flu­ence score for the 47,000 films in­ves­ti­gated, the re­searchers treated the films as nodes in a net­work and mea­sured the num­ber of con­nec­tions each film has to other films and how in­flu­en­tial the films con­nected to it are. “The idea

RE­SEARCHERS CAL­CU­LATED AN IN­FLU­ENCE SCORE FOR 47,000 FILMS, BASED ON HOW MUCH EACH FILM HAD BEEN REFERENCED BY SUB­SE­QUENT FILMS. THEY ALSO AP­PLIED THE AL­GO­RITHM TO DI­REC­TORS

of us­ing net­work anal­y­sis for rank­ing films is not com­pletely new, but to our knowl­edge this is the first study that uses these tech­niques to also rank per­son­al­i­ties in­volved in film pro­duc­tion,” Bioglio said.

The re­searchers sug­gest that their method could be used for re­search in the arts and by film his­to­ri­ans. They cau­tion that the re­sults can only be ap­plied to Western cin­ema as the IMDB data are bi­ased to­wards films pro­duced in Western coun­tries.

A scene from the 1939 clas­sic The Wizard of Oz

Stan­ley KubrickPHO­TOS: GETTY IM­AGES; AFP

Al­fred Hitch­cock

Newspapers in English

Newspapers from India

© PressReader. All rights reserved.