Hindustan Times ST (Mumbai) : 2019-02-11

HTNATION : 11 : 11

HTNATION

nation hindustantimes 09 HINDUSTAN TIMES, MUMBAI MONDAY, FEBRUARY 11, 2019 SOCIAL INEQUALITIES IN INDIA’S JOB MARKET NUMBERTHEORY SCS AND STS HAVE A LOWER RELATIVE SHARE IN BETTER PAYING OCCUPATIONS CHART 3 CHART 1 CERTAIN SCS, STS ARE BETTER OFF THAN REST n ONE: Social groups display a fairly heterogenous division across incomes. Sure, Scheduled Caste (SC) and Scheduled Tribe (ST) workers have a disproportionate share in low-paying occupations in India. But these headline numbers do not tell us the entire story. Certain sub-castes within the SC/ST population are better off than the rest. For example, Jatavs, a Dalit sub-caste in Uttar Pradesh, or Minas, an ST community in Rajasthan, are much better off than other SC/ST workers in terms of their share in better-paying jobs. The chances of SC/ST workers being in a better paying occupation also depend on the state they come from. Richer states have a greater share of well-paying jobs, so this increases the likelihood of an SC/ST worker finding one as well. TWO: The data clearly shows that SC/ST workers have a lower relative share in better paying occupations, but there are variations across regions. The reverse holds true for low paying occupations. The opposite trend can be seen for non-sc, non-st workers. Since the census does not have the Other Backward Class (OBC) category, the non-sc non-st group includes both upper caste and OBCS. See Chart: Relative share of Sc-st-others Relative share of a social group is its share of workers in an occupational category divided by its share in the total number of workers. This analysis excludes cultivators and agricultural workers, so we are only looking at non-farm employment.these results are on expected lines. However, what is often not realised by many is the fact that these headline numbers hide significant sub-caste and geographical differences. For example, the combined relative share of SC/ST workers in elementary occupations, the lowest income category, was the highest in Delhi, which is also Roshan Kishore and Vijdan Mohammad Kawoosa (Relative share) SCS and STS Others | | 0.54 1.11 Professionals UTTAR PRADESH [email protected] n 1.07 0.7 Clerks Caste Relative share in top four paying occupations (as per MPCE*) Last month, the central government announced 10% reservation in jobs and educational institutions for economically weaker sections (EWS) among communities hitherto not entitled to such benefits. The move aims to address economic inequality because, the logic went, the older system of reservation addressed only social inequality. The assumption behind the older system was that there was a complete correspondence between social and economic inequality. In the absence of detailed data on employment by class and caste, it is difficult to understand this correspondence. But an HT analysis of 2011 Census data on types of jobs held by various social groups throws up three interesting take-outs on the relationship between social and economic inequality. The analysis also took into account the incomes for various kinds of jobs (so as to understand which social groups had the jobs with better incomes and which didn’t). The census gives data on workers in accordance with the National Classification of Occupations (NCO). This has 10 broad categories: professionals; clerks; technicians and associate professionals; legislators, senior officers and managers; service workers and shop and market sales workers; plant and machine operators and assemblers; craft and related trades workers; skilled agricultural and fishery workers; elementary occupations; and workers not classified by occupations. The categories listed above are arranged in descending order of their monthly per capita consumption expenditure (MPCE, a proxy for income) taken from the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO ) data for 2011-12 (for details see https:// bit.ly/2gemivk). So, what are the take-outs? NEW DELHI: Technicians and associate professionals 0.88 1.03 1.13 n Chamar, Dhusia, Jhusia, Jatava 0.46 Legislators, senior officials and managers 1.13 1.09 Service workers and shop & market sales workers 0.65 1.11 0.93 0.86 Dhobi 1.02 Plant and machine operators and assemblers 0.91 0.99 n Kori 1.03 Craft and related trades workers 0.96 Pasi, Tarmali 1.18 Skilled agricultural and fishery workers Elementary occupations 1.68 0.83 0.92 Generic Castes etc. 0.76 0.62 1.02 Workers not classified by occupations Balmiki Occupational groups arranged in descending order of their MPCE* 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 RAJASTHAN SHARE OF SC-ST IN 4 HIGHEST & LOWEST PAYING JOBS VARIES ACROSS STATES CHART 2 Tribe Relative share in top four paying occupations (as per MPCE*) 1.56 1.19 0.98 Mina Top four paying occupations Bottom four paying occupations (as per MPCE*) (as per MPCE*) Generic Tribes etc. 0.43 0.47 1.03 Andaman & Nicobar 1.27 1.30 1.36 Haryana Garasia (excluding Rajput Garasia) Dhanka, Tadvi, Tetaria, Valvi 0.49 Odisha 0.51 0.73 0.6 0.49 Chandigarh 0.51 1.38 Kerala Bhil Mina 0.53 1.38 Delhi 0.56 1.20 Punjab Bhil and related tribes 0.58 0.62 1.23 Goa 1.24 Karnataka JHARKHAND 0.64 1.16 Uttar Pradesh 0.65 1.27 1.33 Uttarakhand Caste Relative share in top four paying occupations (as per MPCE*) Dusadh, Dhari, Dharhi Dhobi 0.66 Dadra & Nagar Haveli Rajasthan Madhya Pradesh West Bengal Maharashtra Himachal Pradesh Jharkhand Tamil Nadu Bihar Jammu & Kashmir Puducherry Gujarat Tripura Chhattisgarh Andhra Pradesh Assam Daman & Diu Lakshadweep Meghalaya Mizoram Sikkim Nagaland Manipur Arunachal Pradesh 0.66 1.25 1.8 0.67 1.27 0.67 1.15 1.79 1.34 0.78 0.44 0.35 0.68 1.25 Chamar, Mochi 0.69 1.23 0.69 1.22 1.17 Bauri 0.69 0.73 Turi 1.19 1.16 0.74 Bhuiya 0.74 1.24 1.29 0.82 0.87 0.91 KERALA 1.12 1.16 Tribe Relative share in top four paying occupations (as per MPCE*) 0.94 1.10 1.01 1.02 Malai Arayan, Mala Arayan 2.88 1.82 1.01 0.94 1.39 1.05 Generic Tribes etc. 1.05 1.01 Kurichchan, Kurichiyan 0.96 0.41 0.12 0.12 1.06 1.12 0.91 0.93 Mavilan 1.20 0.90 Paniyan 1.21 1.04 1.44 0.82 Mala Vettuvan 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Relative share: Ratio of share of workers in an occupational category to their share in worker population; MPCE: Monthly per capita consumption expenditure (a proxy for income) n n NO REASON TO MISS INDIA’S LARGEST-READ MAGAZINE › EVERY SUNDAY WITH HT! n For all stories, visit www.hindustantimes.com/brunch

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