The State of the State (SOTS) study of Bihar’s 38 districts is meant to outline the broad trends in economic and social development in the state and a district-wise ranking of performance. The evaluation has two segments: best-performing district at a particular time and the most-improved district over the past decade. The data was collected by Asian Development Research Institute from various sources— Census, National Sample Survey, Central Statistical Office, National Family Health Survey, District Information System for Education, National Crime Records Bureau, various ministries, Directorate of Economics and Statistics for the state government, to name a few—and standardised. Ten categories were selected, each a composite index of variables for which uniform, continuous data was available. The constituent indicators were arranged in a unidirectional manner, i.e. all indicators were positive or negative. For example, higher the female literacy rate, higher the level of educational development—a positive indicator of development. Higher the crime rate per 1,000 persons, lower the level of development with respect to law and order—a negative indicator. The most recent year was used to rank the best district. The difference between the most recent category value and the values 10 years earlier was used to rank the most-improved district.