De­f­expo-2018 Show of Strength

The high­light of the show was the con­fi­dent In­dian in­dus­try which is sure of its ca­pa­bil­ity to de­liver prod­ucts as per the forces’ re­quire­ment.


THE RE­CENTLY CON­CLUDED DE­F­EXPO 2018, In­dia’s premier land and naval force ex­po­si­tion, was aimed at pro­ject­ing In­dia as the weapon ex­port­ing na­tions. In the pre­vi­ous edi­tions of the show the fo­cus was on what world can of­fer to In­dia. But, this year the theme was ‘In­dia: The Emerg­ing De­fence Man­u­fac­tur­ing Hub’. The shift in fo­cus to­wards man­u­fac­tur­ing and ex­port is a par­a­digm shift in In­dian out­look. Is there enough ground for it? It seems yes.

In­au­gu­ra­tion of the De­f­expo 2018 by the Prime Min­is­ter Naren­dra Modi re­in­forced the In­dian Govern­ment’s com­mit­ment to make In­dia self-re­liant in de­fence man­u­fac­tur­ing. Prime Min­is­ter Modi, on the sec­ond day, for­mally in­au­gu­rated the show. While de­liv­er­ing his in­au­gu­ral speech, Modi con­vinc­ingly ar­tic­u­lated his govern­ment’s plan to ease out woes of In­dian and global de­fence in­dus­try. “Our com­mit­ment to peace is just as strong as our com­mit­ment to pro­tect­ing our peo­ple and our ter­ri­tory. For this we are ready to take all nec­es­sary mea­sures to equip our armed forces, in­clud­ing through the es­tab­lish­ment of a strate­gi­cally in­de­pen­dent de­fence in­dus­trial com­plex.”

Not­ing the unique­ness and dis­tor­tion of the de­fence in­dus­try where govern­ment is the sole buyer, Modi said, “We are con­scious that de­fence man­u­fac­tur­ing is unique in terms of govern­ment in­volve­ment.” Dur­ing the in­au­gu­ra­tion Modi also launched the In­no­va­tions for De­fence Ex­cel­lence (IDEX) which will sup­port young men and women to come up with in­no­va­tive so­lu­tions for In­dian de­fence re­quire­ments.

Speak­ing on the first day of expo, De­fence Min­is­ter Nir­mala Sithara­man, with an eye on the ex­port, said that a larger ob­jec­tive will be served by fo­cus­ing on de­fence in­dus­try. Call­ing In­dia a strong, grow­ing and fu­tur­is­tic econ­omy which is sus­tain­ing it­self, Sithara­man said that it is not only govern­ment’s com­pul­sion to sup­port de­fence pro­duc­tion but also to achieve larger ob­jec­tives. “Mak­ing In­dia a hub for de­fence in­dus­tries and mak­ing sure that the de­fence pro­duc­tion is not just for our con­sump­tion but also to aim on ex­port. So, In­dia to­day is able to talk bi­lat­er­ally to many coun­tries,” she said.

She added that In­dia un­der­stands that shift­ing de­fence pro­duc­tion to In­dia and trans­fer of tech­nol­ogy is not one sided dream but it is an ac­tual re­al­ity which is tak­ing shape.

In what could be con­sid­ered as the most talked about fea­tures of the show is the live de­mon­stra­tion by the In­dian de­signed and de­vel­oped prod­ucts which are part of the in­ven­tory of the In­dian forces. The de­mon­stra­tion was a sales pitch to the vis­it­ing for­eign del­e­ga­tions that In­dia has prod­ucts that they can in­duct in their ar­se­nals.

Dur­ing the de­mon­stra­tion, the com­plete fleet of he­li­copters of govern­ment owned the Hin­dus­tan Aero­nau­tics Lim­ited’s (HAL) Light Util­ity Helicopter, Light Com­bat Helicopter, Ad­vanced Light Helicopter and weaponised ALH dis­played their prow­ess. Sim­i­larly, the In­dian de­signed and de­vel­oped how­itzers, Ord­nance Fac­tory Board’s 155mm/45 cal­i­bre and De­fence Re­search and De­vel­op­ment Or­gan­i­sa­tion’s (DRDO) 155mm/52 cal­i­bre Ad­vanced Towed Ar­tillery Gun were show­cased along with its Ar­jun Mk-II main bat­tle tank.

The show was at­tended by 701 ex­hibitors which in­cludes 154 in­ter­na­tional ex­hibitors. Nearly 15 per cent of the to­tal ex­hi­bi­tion space was booked by medium small and mi­cro en­ter­prises (MSME). In terms of area, this edi­tion was spread over 2,90,000 square feet which is 65,000 square feet more than the Goa edi­tion.

Al­though, the in­dus­try is ea­gerly look­ing for­ward to the Min­istry of De­fence (MoD) for clar­ity on the par­tic­i­pa­tion of the pub­lic sec­tor in the strate­gic part­ner­ship model of the de­fence pro­cure­ment pro­ce­dure (DPP), yet num­ber of Mem­o­ran­dum of Un­der­stand­ings (MoU) were signed be­tween lead­ing pri­vate firms and de­fence pub­lic sec­tor firms. It is a good omen for the de­vel­op­ment of lo­cal de­fence in­dus­try. The com­ing to­gether of the ever con­flict­ing pri­vate and pub­lic sec­tor to de­velop prod­ucts for In­dian and global mar­ket is a win-win sit­u­a­tion. This is a model which has tasted suc­cess.

Two of the best made in In­dia sys­tems, Pi­naka multi-bar­rel rocket launch­ing sys­tem and ATAG are the per­fect ex­am­ple of pub­lic-pri­vate part­ner­ship model. This model al­lows vir­tu­ous uti­liza­tion of the ca­pa­bil­i­ties of both sec­tors. More­over, this will also ex­pe­dite the prod­uct de­vel­op­ment.

The show wit­nessed many an­nounce­ments and dis­plays of new prod­ucts from both pri­vate and pub­lic play­ers. The de­ci­sion of the Prime Min­is­ter to in­au­gu­rate the show gave a much re­quired flip to its sta­tus. Al­though, the venue was new yet one can’t re­call such a fine man­age­ment of space ever in its pre­vi­ous edi­tions. Be­fore the show, the in­dus­try was afraid that in short span of time, the or­ga­niz­ers will not be able to put up a good show, but to ev­ery­one’s sur­prise the show was not only well man­aged but with ev­ery kind of fa­cil­ity for the par­tic­i­pants.

The show was high on busi­ness and also on glitz. There wasn’t any big ticket an­nounce­ment. But, below the radar, the busi­ness was in­tense. One can an­tic­i­pate some se­ri­ous de­vel­op­ment com­ing out of the expo.

BEML Un­veils Bul­let Proof Ve­hi­cle

BEML Lim­ited, a Pub­lic Sec­tor Com­pany un­der the Min­istry of De­fence, launched Medium Bul­let Proof 4x4 Ve­hi­cle (MBPV 4x4) for use in counter in­sur­gency op­er­a­tions at the expo. The MBPV, is a 4x4 wheel heavy duty all weather off road mo­bil­ity ve­hi­cle, spe­cially de­signed for easy ma­neu­ver­abil­ity, op­er­abil­ity and main­tain­abil­ity. This ad­vanced blast pro­tected and bul­let proof ve­hi­cle shields the se­cu­rity per­son­nel from

“Mak­ing In­dia a hub for de­fence in­dus­tries and mak­ing sure that the de­fence pro­duc­tion is not just for our con­sump­tion but also to aim on ex­ports. So, In­dia to­day is able to talk bi­lat­er­ally to many coun­tries.” —Nir­mala Sithara­man, De­fence Min­is­ter

small arms fire, hand grenades and frag­ment sim­u­lated pro­jec­tiles, etc. With sur­viv­abil­ity as the ma­jor ob­jec­tive, the MBPV 4x4 has a car­ry­ing ca­pac­ity of 10+2 per­sons.

BEML & OFB Launches Force Mul­ti­plier 155 mm 52 CAL Mounted Gun Sys­tem

OFB and BEML have un­veiled its lat­est prod­uct: The 155 mm 52 Cal Mounted Gun sys­tem at a func­tion held at the on­go­ing De­f­expo 2018 at Chen­nai jointly by Deepak Ku­mar Hota, CMD, BEML Lim­ited & S.K. Choura­sia, DGOF & Chair­man OFB.

The unique­ness of this project is that it has been com­pletely and in­de­pen­dently de­signed and man­u­fac­tured by OFB in as­so­ci­a­tion with BEML and BEL and is there­fore a shin­ing ex­am­ple of ‘Make in In­dia’ - The Theme of De­f­expo’18. The Gun is equipped with the state-of-the-art lay­ing sys­tem and sight­ing sys­tem such as GPS aided INS, muz­zle ve­loc­ity feeder data man­age­ment, day and night fir­ing, bal­last­ing com­puter sys­tem ca­pa­bil­ity.

The ar­ma­ment used in the 155 mm 52 Cal with tar­get equip­ment ca­pa­bil­ity of ap­prox­i­mate 42Kms. The Gun Sys­tem com­bines with the ad­van­tage of high mo­bil­ity per­for­mance of a truck with ac­cu­rate long range fire power of a 155 mm 52 Cal Gun and with its on­board am­mu­ni­tion stor­age ca­pa­bil­ity of 18 rounds of HE shells as well as 18 BMCS and 2-6 charg­ers. It can be au­to­mat­i­cally de­ployed in any ter­rain and can per­form a mis­sion in­de­pen­dently.

Kalyani Group and BAE Sys­tems to Pro­vide Air De­fence Guns

In­dian en­gi­neer­ing ma­jor Kalyani Group and Bri­tish de­fence ma­jor BAE Sys­tems, on April 13, an­nounced that they are work­ing to­gether to de­velop and pro­vide Air De­fence Guns for In­dian Se­cu­rity Forces.

Ra­jin­der Singh Bha­tia, Pres­i­dent and CEO (De­fence and Aero­space) of Bharat Forge Ltd said, “The Kalyani Group has in­dige­nously de­vel­oped its skills and ca­pa­bil­ity within De­fence. We are now ex­pand­ing our pro­file in the de­fence seg­ment to in­clude Air De­fence Guns and am­mu­ni­tion in or­der to pro­vide so­lu­tions to In­dian se­cu­rity forces for ter­mi­nal air de­fence. The Group and BAE Sys­tems have agreed to part­ner for trans­fer of tech­nol­ogy for air de­fence guns and am­mu­ni­tion. BAE Sys­tems’ ad­vanced tech­nol­ogy will be com­ple­mented with Bharat Forge Ltd’s world-class de­sign, de­vel­op­ment and man­u­fac­tur­ing ca­pa­bil­i­ties. This will be the per­fect ex­am­ple of ‘Make in In­dia’ so­lu­tions.”

Ashok Ley­land Ex­hibits Six Ad­vanced Prod­ucts and Tech­nol­ogy

In a ges­ture ap­pre­ci­at­ing the con­tri­bu­tion of the hum­ble sol­diers, Ashok Ley­land, flag-

ship of the Hin­duja Group and the largest sup­pli­ers of lo­gis­tics ve­hi­cles to the In­dian Army, got its prod­ucts un­veiled by Ma­hadevi Bile­bal, widow of Late Lance Nayak Hanu­man­thappa Kop­pad, who was posthu­mously awarded the Sena medal, and Hony Capt Raghu­nath Singh, Veer Chakra.

Speak­ing on the oc­ca­sion, Vinod K. Dasari, MD, Ashok Ley­land, said, “We have been an in­te­gral part of our na­tion’s De­fence op­er­a­tions and we con­tinue to evolve as a trusted part­ner in pro­vid­ing endto-end so­lu­tions in the area of mo­bil­ity.”

“We have de­vel­oped ca­pa­bil­i­ties which will help us to bid for 20-25 per cent of the ten­ders of the In­dian Army as against less than one per cent ear­lier,” he added.

The com­pany un­veiled LSV 4x4-Light Spe­cial­ist Ve­hi­cle 4x4, Guru 715- Gen­eral Ser­vice lo­gis­tics ve­hi­cle, Medium Bul­let Proof Ve­hi­cle 4x4, Su­per Stal­lion 8x8A High Mo­bil­ity Ve­hi­cle, power pack for ar­tillery guns (tech­nol­ogy so­lu­tion for the In­dian Army), tracked ve­hi­cles: Re­power, Up­grade So­lu­tions for tracked ve­hi­cles and Fu­ture In­fantry Com­bat Ve­hi­cle Mo­bil­ity.

BEL Signs MoU with L&T

Pub­lic sec­tor de­fence elec­tron­ics ma­jor Bharat Elec­tron­ics Lim­ited (BEL) and pri­vate sec­tor en­gi­neer­ing leader Larsen & Toubro, on April 11, signed an MoU dur­ing the De­f­expo to share their ex­per­tise in de­sign, de­vel­op­ment, en­gi­neer­ing and man­u­fac­tur­ing to de­velop and pro­duce prod­ucts and sys­tems to meet the re­quire­ment of the de­fence ser­vices as well as for ex­port mar­kets.

M.V. Gow­tama, CMD, BEL, and se­nior of­fi­cials from both the or­gan­i­sa­tions were present on the oc­ca­sion. Anandi Ra­ma­lingam, Di­rec­tor (Mar­ket­ing), BEL, and J.D. Patil, Whole Time Di­rec­tor and Se­nior Ex­ec­u­tive Vice Pres­i­dent (L&T De­fence), signed the MoU.

Both the com­pa­nies will co-op­er­ate and work in part­ner­ship mode for se­lect pro­grammes of the In­dian govern­ment and also for the global mar­ket.

BEL and Mahin­dra Comes To­gether

On April 12, BEL and Mahin­dra De­fence Sys­tems signed a MoU for a long-term part­ner­ship to ex­ploit op­por­tu­ni­ties in the de­fence sec­tor in both do­mes­tic and ex­port mar­kets.

Speak­ing on the oc­ca­sion, S.P. Shukla, Group Pres­i­dent, Aero­space & De­fence, Mahin­dra Group said, “Both BEL and Mahin­dra De­fence are world-class en­gi­neer­ing com­pa­nies. To give one ex­am­ple, to­gether we have ca­pa­bil­i­ties in mo­bil­ity, sur­viv­abil­ity, lethal­ity, elec­tron­ics and com­mu­ni­ca­tions, mak­ing us ideal part­ners for new de­vel­op­ment as well as for up­grade of in ser­vice com­bat ve­hi­cles. This part­ner­ship can be grown not only to meet the re­quire­ments of the In­dian Armed Forces but also to tar­get ex­ports to other friendly coun­tries.”

“We are pleased to come to­gether. We are keen to bring to the ta­ble our in-house ex­per­tise as well as tech­ni­cal know-how to the cur­rent and fu­ture de­sign of new gen­er­a­tion de­fence sys­tems and prod­ucts We are con­fi­dent that the two of us will work to­gether to con­trib­ute to indige­nous de­fence pro­duc­tion,” M.V. Gow­tama, CMD, BEL, said.

Kalyani Rafael Ad­vanced Sys­tems (KRAS) An­nounces Ex­pan­sion

Kalyani Rafael Ad­vanced Sys­tems (KRAS), a joint ven­ture be­tween Kalyani Strate­gic Sys­tems and Rafael Ad­vanced De­fence Sys­tems of Is­rael, is all set to ex­pand its prod­uct pro­file. The KRAS will now ven­ture into the space of Mis­sile sys­tems with the New Gen­er­a­tion Pre­ci­sion Guided Mu­ni­tions (NGPGM), Air De­fense sys­tems and ca­pa­bil­i­ties for Medium-Range Sur­face to Air Mis­sile (MRSAM), Low-Level Quick Re­ac­tion Mis­siles (LLQR) and Quick Re­ac­tion (QR) SAM pro­grams. The ex­pan­sion will also in­clude the Drone Dome sys­tem (Radar and laser beam sys­tem for de­tect­ing, jam- ming and de­stroy­ing drones) and the Naval Re­mote con­trol Weapon Sta­tion Sys­tems Pro­gramme.

KRAS, es­tab­lished in 2015, for man­u­fac­tur­ing and life cy­cle sup­port of Spike Mis­siles sys­tems, BMP II up­grade and Ad­don Ar­mour So­lu­tions. The joint ven­ture has a state-of-the-art fa­cil­ity at Hy­der­abad for man­u­fac­tur­ing of de­fence sub sys­tems.

In its first phase of ex­pan­sion in March 2017, KRAS in­cluded pro­vi­sion of indige­nous so­lu­tions to New Gen­er­a­tion Pre­ci­sion Guided Mu­ni­tions (NGPGM) and Long Range Guided Bomb (LRGB).

As part of its sec­ond phase of ex­pan­sion, KRAS will now also pro­vide indige­nous so­lu­tions for Mis­siles Sys­tems like MRSAM, LLQRM, QRSAM as well as the Naval Gun Pro­gram and Drone Dome Sys­tem. This ex­pan­sion will bring-in niche tech­nol­ogy in the coun­try for such ad­vanced de­fence sys­tems and will fur­ther boost the JV’s com­mit­ment to ‘Make in In­dia’.

Boe­ing, HAL and Mahin­dra Comes To­gether for F/A-18 Su­per Hor­net

Global mil­i­tary avi­a­tion ma­jor Boe­ing an­nounced join­ing hand with Hin­dus­tan Aero­nau­tics Lim­ited (HAL) and Mahin­dra De­fence Sys­tems (MDS) for man­u­fac­tur­ing of the su­per-sonic jet fighter F/A-18 Su­per Hor­net in In­dia. The part­ner­ship will also pur­sue the joint de­vel­op­ment of fu­ture tech­nolo­gies.

In­dia cur­rently has two fighter pro­grammes – 110 air­craft for In­dian Air Force and 57 air­craft for In­dian Navy, and Boe­ing is one of main con­tenders in both the pro­grammes.

“This part­ner­ship brings the best of In­dian pub­lic and pri­vate en­ter­prises to­gether in part­ner­ship with the world’s largest aero­space com­pany, Boe­ing, to ac­cel­er­ate a con­tem­po­rary 21st cen­tury ecosys­tem for aero­space and de­fence man­u­fac­tur­ing in In­dia,” said Pratyush Ku­mar, pres­i­dent, Boe­ing In­dia. “Our part­ner­ship with HAL and Mahin­dra will en­able us to op­ti­mize the full po­ten­tial of In­dia’s pub­lic and pri­vate sec­tor to de­liver next-gen­er­a­tion F/A-18 fighter ca­pa­bil­i­ties. To­gether we can de­liver an af­ford­able, com­bat­proven fighter plat­form for In­dia, while adding growth mo­men­tum to the In­dian aero­space ecosys­tem with man­u­fac­tur­ing, skill de­vel­op­ment, in­no­va­tion and en­gi­neer­ing and job cre­ation.”

“Hin­dus­tan Aero­nau­tics Lim­ited has al­ways been at the fore­front of aero­space de­vel­op­ment in In­dia’s aero­space sec­tor,” said T. Su­varna Raju, Chair­man and Man­ag­ing Di­rec­tor, HAL. “This part­ner­ship with Boe­ing and Mahin­dra De­fence Sys­tems will create an op­por­tu­nity to de­velop ca­pa­bil­i­ties of the aero­space in­dus­try and strengthen indige­nous plat­forms in In­dia thereby con­tribut­ing to the ‘Make in In­dia’ ac­tiv­i­ties.”

The Su­per Hor­net ‘Make in In­dia’ pro­posal is to build an en­tirely new and state-of-the-art pro­duc­tion fa­cil­ity that can be uti­lized for other pro­grammes like In­dia’s Ad­vanced Medium Com­bat Air­craft (AMCA) pro­gramme.

This part­ner­ship is in­tended to bring to­gether Boe­ing, HAL and MDS’ global sup­ply chain and will ex­pand In­dia’s aero­space ecosys­tem in ac­cor­dance with the vi­sion of ‘Make in In­dia’. Ac­cord­ing to Boe­ing, the Su­per Hor­net does not only have a low ac­qui­si­tion cost, but it costs less per flight hour to op­er­ate than any other tac­ti­cal air­craft in US forces in­ven­tory.

Ka-226T Con­fig­u­ra­tion Fi­nal­ized

In­dia has moved one step closer to­wards the ex­e­cu­tion of 200 Ka-226T light util­ity helicopter deal. Dur­ing the show, the Rus­sian He­li­copters an­nounced that In­dia has ap­proved the tech­ni­cal con­fig­u­ra­tion of the Ka-226T to be man­u­fac­tured by the joint ven­ture firm Indo-Rus­sian He­li­copters Lim­ited in In­dia.

“Ap­proval of helicopter con­fig­u­ra­tion to be de­liv­ered and as­sem­bled in In­dia means that the tech­ni­cal as­pects of the project have been fi­nalised. We and our In­dian part­ners shall com­mence the prepa­ra­tion of con­trac­tual doc­u­ments in the near fu­ture”, said An­drey Bo­gin­skiy, Di­rec­tor Gen­eral of Rus­sian He­li­copters Hold­ing Com­pany.

The Ka-226T will re­place age­ing Chee­tah and Chetak he­li­copters. A gov­ern­mentto-govern­ment deal with Rus­sia signed at the end of 2015 for 200 Ka-226T he­li­copters to be man­u­fac­tured in In­dia. The Share­hold­ers Agree­ment for the es­tab­lish­ment of a Joint Ven­ture to man­u­fac­ture Ka226T he­li­copters in In­dia was also signed in 2016. The project will be ex­e­cuted through a joint ven­ture be­tween HAL (50.5 per cent) and Rus­sian He­li­copters.

In May 2017, Prime Min­is­ter Naren­dra Modi laid the foun­da­tion stone for a new helicopter man­u­fac­tur­ing fa­cil­ity for HAL in Tu­makuru, lo­cated 70 km north-west of Bengaluru in Kar­nataka as a step in HAL’s ex­pan­sion of its helicopter pro­duc­tion ca­pa­bil­ity. Out of 200, 60 he­li­copters will come from Rus­sia and rest will be man­u­fac­tured in In­dia.

In­dian Team to visit Rus­sia to Fa­mil­iar­ize with Naval Ka-226T

To wit­ness a de­mon­stra­tion flight of the naval ver­sion of the light util­ity Ka-226T he­li­copters, a del­e­ga­tion from MoD will visit Kamov De­sign Bureau of Rus­sian He­li­copters.

In­dia is buy­ing 200 of th­ese he­li­copters to re­place the army and air force fleet of Chee­tah and Chetak he­li­copters. Re­cently, In­dian Navy has come up with a ten­der for 111 naval util­ity he­li­copters. Kamov wants to of­fer the naval ver­sion of Ka-226T for this ten­der.

“We have of­fered the In­dian side to visit Kamov De­sign Bureau that de­vel­oped Ka226T for the project of de­liv­er­ing 200 units of such he­li­copters and lo­cal­iz­ing their pro­duc­tion in In­dia. Our col­leagues shall be able to take part in a de­mon­stra­tion flight and to learn more about Ka-226T ca­pa­ble of be­ing de­ployed aboard a ship. Plac­ing an or­der for he­li­copters for the In­dian Navy with our joint ven­ture in In­dia is ben­e­fit­ing both sides, there­fore, we have de­cided to in­vite our part­ners to gain a more de­tailed fa­mil­iar­iza­tion with this ro­tor­craft,” noted An­drey Bo­gin­skiy, Di­rec­tor Gen­eral of Rus­sian He­li­copters Hold­ing Com­pany.

A govern­ment-to-govern­ment deal with Rus­sia signed at the end of 2015 for 200 Ka-226T he­li­copters to be man­u­fac­tured in In­dia. The Share­hold­ers Agree­ment for the es­tab­lish­ment of a Joint Ven­ture to man­u­fac­ture Ka-226T he­li­copters in In­dia was also signed in 2016. The project will be ex­e­cuted through a joint ven­ture be­tween HAL (50.5 per cent) and Rus­sian He­li­copters.

Since 2017, Ka-226T he­li­copters with a ship bas­ing ca­pa­bil­ity are be­ing se­ri­ally produced and de­liv­ered to the Rus­sian spe­cialpur­pose avi­a­tion.

As dis­tinct from the ‘land-based’ ver­sion, light util­ity ship-based Ka-226T helicopter fea­tures a blade fold­ing sys­tem of the main ro­tor. Ow­ing to its small di­men­sions, the helicopter can be de­ployed on ships and low-dis­place­ment ves­sels. Ship­based Ka-226T helicopter is in­tended for per­form­ing search and res­cue and trans­port mis­sions round-the-clock in stan­dard or ad­verse weather.


Big Day @ De­f­expo 2018: Prime Min­is­ter Naren­dra Modi de­liv­er­ing his ad­dress at the in­au­gu­ra­tion cer­e­mony of the De­f­expo 2018 in Chen­nai


(Top) Chief of the Army Staff Gen­eral Bipin Rawat at the BEL pavil­lion; (above) Ar­jun MBT Mk II in ac­tion on the open­ing day of De­f­expo 2018 in Chen­nai.

PHO­TOGRAPHS: BEL, Karthik Ku­mar / SP Guide Pubns

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