In­dia Needs to Plan UBI Launch: ADB

The Economic Times - - Front Page -

In­dia has the plat­form but needs to see how uni­ver­sal ba­sic in­come can be launched ef­fi­ciently, ADB coun­try di­rec­tor for In­dia Kenichi Yokoyama has said. A PIL was filed on Thurs­day in the Supreme Court chal­leng­ing the new quota law. The court will de­cide whether to ad­mit the pe­ti­tion. But the cen­tral claim of the new reser­va­tion — 10% of govt jobs and 10% of higher ed­u­ca­tion seats re­served for “eco­nom­i­cally weaker sec­tions” in the gen­eral cat­e­gory — that it will em­power the dis­ad­van­taged comes up against the re­al­ity of avail­able op­por­tu­ni­ties in both pub­lic jobs and col­lege and uni­ver­sity ca­pac­ity and qual­ity. takes a look… If cen­tral govt jobs are taken as proxy for the gen­eral govt (states plus Cen­tre) sec­tor, the jobs sce­nario is not en­cour­ag­ing at all. There has been a drop of 20% from the peak in 1995 till 2014. 26.99 34.07 38.13 39.82 38.76 31.64 31.16 31.12 30.99 30.87 30.85 28.05 32.24

To­tal Em­ploy­ment

Plus, share of pub­lic sec­tor jobs in or­gan­ised em­ploy­ment in In­dia is com­ing down sharply. From a peak of over 71% in 1990-91, the share shrank to less than 60% in FY12, & is still fall­ing

Also, as a par­lia­men­tary ques­tion dur­ing this govt’s term showed, be­tween 2013 & 2015, there has been an 89% fall in di­rect re­cruit­ment in cen­tral govt min­istries & de­part­ments

Not all govt va­can­cies are be­ing filled up, to main­tain the fis­cal line In­dia’s gross en­rol­ment ra­tio — the num­ber of col­lege-go­ing stu­dents vis-a-vis the to­tal pop­u­la­tion in the 18-23 age group — in higher ed­u­ca­tion is quite low by global stan­dards. In­dia’s GER is 25 while South Ko­rea’s is 93 and China’s is 48. This means de­spite a steep in­crease in the num­ber of higher ed­u­ca­tion in­sti­tutes re­spond­ing to mar­ket de­mand, there’s still not ad­e­quate sup­ply of seats even if, say, 20% more In­di­ans in 18-23 age group want to join col­leges.

Plus, there’s a qual­ity prob­lem. In higher ed­u­ca­tion, the rush for qual­ity is usu­ally in govt and govt-aided in­sti­tu­tions, not just IITs and IIMs, but In­dia’s bet­ter col­leges. But al­most all ca­pac­ity ad­di­tion in higher ed­u­ca­tion has been in the pri­vate sec­tor; 67.3% stu­dents are in pri­vate in­sti­tutes. But as ex­perts have noted, qual­ity in most of these is highly sus­pect. And the share of en­rol­ment in gen­eral cat­e­gory stu­dents is fall­ing in higher ed­u­ca­tion. This means, many po­ten­tial col­lege stu­dents are sim­ply opt­ing out of stud­ies be­cause of lack of rea­son­able-qual­ity ed­u­ca­tion

Stu­dent En­rol­ment In Higher Ed­u­ca­tion, By So­cial Group

Gap Be­tween Sanc­tioned Strength & Ac­tual Strength NO. OF VA­CANT POSTS (LAKH)

Higher ed­u­ca­tion GER (Gross En­rol­ment Ra­tio) has in­creased in the last 5 years

Gen­eral cat­e­gory SC ST OBC

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