Ja­panese sur­prise

The New Indian Express - - XPLORE -

Sev­enty-seven years ago on a fate­ful Sun­day morn­ing, im­pe­rial Ja­panese forces led a sur­prise at­tack on the US naval base of Pearl Har­bour in Hawaii. Thou­sands of Amer­i­cans died in the air strikes on De­cem­ber 7 in less than 90 min­utes. The fol­low­ing day, the US Congress de­clared war on Ja­pan tak­ing the ‘War of the Na­tions’ to the eastern hemi­sphere. We take a look at the in­fa­mous bomb­ing that sealed the fate of Ja­pan and stopped its mil­i­tary ex­pan­sion.

CAUGHT UN­AWARE

Amer­i­can in­tel­li­gence of­fi­cials never ex­pected the Ja­panese to at­tack Hawaii and be­lieved the ac­tion would mainly take place in Dutch East In­dies, Sin­ga­pore or In­dochina.

THE SUN FI­NALLY SETS KHUBLAI KHAN COULD NEVER CON­QUER JA­PAN

In 1274 and 1281, the Mon­gols tried to in­vade Ja­pan, but were un­suc­cess­ful.

FIRST WIN OF ASIANS AGAINST EU­RO­PEANS

In 1904-05, the Ja­panese de­feated the Czars dur­ing the Russo-Ja­panese War and changed the power dy­nam­ics in the east.

AM­BI­TIONS GONE AWRY

Ja­panese Em­peror Hiro­hito played a key role in the coun­try’s move to­wards ul­tra­na­tion­al­ism and mil­i­tarism. Ja­pan wanted the US to lift the eco­nomic sanc­tions, but rather they got in­volved in a war that ul­ti­mately led to the coun­try’s hu­mil­i­at­ing de­feat and its first oc­cu­pa­tion by a for­eign power. Pearl Har­bor is lo­cated near the cen­tre of the Pa­cific Ocean, roughly

from the US main­land and about

from Ja­pan. Al­though the Pearl Har­bour at­tack was a sur­prise. US-Ja­pan re­la­tions was tense for al­most two decades.

1937

Dur­ing the Sec­ond Sino-Ja­panese War, the Ja­panese mas­sa­cred 2,00,000 civil­ians and pris­on­ers of war.

The US re­sponded with eco­nomic sanc­tions and trade em­bar­goes with the ob­jec­tive to stop Ja­panese ex­pan­sion­ism.

MARINES 109

killed

CIVIL­IANS 68

killed

69

wounded

35

wounded

USS Ari­zona (BB-39) burn­ing af­ter the Ja­panese at­tack

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