Multiple drivers will jointly enable the higher capacity of the 5G RAN
• Antenna technologies, such as massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) or beamforming to improve spectral efficiency,
• Sub-6 GHz unlicensed spectrum, used opportunistically, will complement licensed spectrum, with a combination of 5G New Radio (NR), LTE, or Wi-Fi for the air interface.
• Integration across interfaces and bands includes sub-6 GHz unlicensed bands
• More advanced carrier aggregation and dual connectivity will further improve the allocation of network resources.
• The use of mmWave for access has the potential to radically expand network capacity in hotspots.