Breath­tak­ing clog­ging of breath­ing.

Woman's Era - - Contents - Shree Prakash

Pol­lu­tion in our met­ros and other big cities have been a mat­ter of con­cern. It is hav­ing bad ef­fects on the qual­ity of our life and health. The pol­lu­tion lev­els of air and wa­ter are in big cities are hik­ing at an alarm­ing rate. Sources of pol­lu­tion

Pol­lu­tants may be solid, liq­uid or gas. Solid wastes are in the form of do­mes­tic or in­dus­trial garbage. Liq­uid waste may come from drainage or in­dus­trial wastes. Gaseous waste may be due to fu­el­wood burn­ing, biomass burn­ing, ex­haust from in­dus­tries, fuel adul­ter­ation and emis­sions from nu­mer­ous ve­hi­cles in cities many of them hav­ing ab­nor­mal­ity higher than stan­dard emis­sions. Also, var­i­ous con­struc­tion, agri­cul­tural (giv­ing mainly am­mo­nia ), house­hold (dur­ing clean­ing, paint­ing ) and min­ing ac­tiv­i­ties con­trib­ute to pol­lu­tion. Traf­fic con­ges­tion is also one of rea­sons for bad emis­sion level. Due to traf­fic

jams, ve­hi­cles move at much slower speeds and at low speed, they burn fuel in­ef­fi­ciently and re­lease more un­wanted emis­sions.

We all know about the level of air pol­lu­tion in In­dia and par­tic­u­larly in Delhi and NCR, which is said to be among most pol­luted ar­eas. Be­sides toxic smog caus­ing de­layed and/or can­celled flights and trains, it is the main cause of asthma and res­pi­ra­tory prob­lems in the NCR. In­dia is the third largest emit­ter of green­house gases car­bon diox­ide af­ter China and the USA. Other cities and met­ros too may be slightly bet­ter but far from pre­scribed stan­dard lim­its. In fact no In­dian city can pass the pol­lu­tion thresh­old limit of 20 on a scale of PM 2.5 set by WHO. It is mea­sured as the num­ber of small par­ti­cles per cu­bic me­tre usu­ally in terms of 2.5 or 10 mi­cro­gram size of par­ti­cles called PM 2.5 scale or PM 10 scale). Such par­ti­cles may en­ter our blood through lungs and cause asthma, heart, lung prob­lems.

Lev­els of pol­lu­tion (an­nual av­er­age as mea­sured in PM 2.5 scale) in our met­ros at a glance (can vary daily and may be worst in par­tic­u­lar sea­sons).

Delhi - 125, Mum­bai - 63, Chen­nai - 62, Kolkata - 61.

An­other source of pol­lu­tion is noise:

Though this form of pol­lu­tion is un­seen but it can be heard and it is silently caus­ing prob­lems. Sources of noise pol­lu­tion are - air­crafts, ve­hi­cles, fire­works, re­li­gious and cul­tural func­tions, in­dus­tries and ral­lies or­gan­ised by po­lit­i­cal par­ties to name few.

Noise pol­lu­tion can cause hear­ing de­fects, sleep prob­lems, ir­ri­ta­tion and be­havioural changes, anger, hy­per­ten­sion and even de­men­tia. Even an­i­mals and birds are af­fected by it. Some baby birds have been re­ported dead due to ex­treme noise pol­lu­tion.

Noise pol­lu­tion is mea­sured in deci­bels and the per­mis­si­ble limit for safety of the ears is 40- 45 deci­bels (db), while the sound pro­duced by do­mes­tic pres­sure cooker is 70-75 db, aero­plane - 100120 db, TV and mu­sic sys­tem - 70-85 db, gun­shot-140 db.

We can have an idea of noise pol­lu­tion and over­all pol­lu­tion around us.

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