GROWING POLLUTION LEVELS IN METROS
Breathtaking clogging of breathing.
Pollution in our metros and other big cities have been a matter of concern. It is having bad effects on the quality of our life and health. The pollution levels of air and water are in big cities are hiking at an alarming rate. Sources of pollution
Pollutants may be solid, liquid or gas. Solid wastes are in the form of domestic or industrial garbage. Liquid waste may come from drainage or industrial wastes. Gaseous waste may be due to fuelwood burning, biomass burning, exhaust from industries, fuel adulteration and emissions from numerous vehicles in cities many of them having abnormality higher than standard emissions. Also, various construction, agricultural (giving mainly ammonia ), household (during cleaning, painting ) and mining activities contribute to pollution. Traffic congestion is also one of reasons for bad emission level. Due to traffic
jams, vehicles move at much slower speeds and at low speed, they burn fuel inefficiently and release more unwanted emissions.
We all know about the level of air pollution in India and particularly in Delhi and NCR, which is said to be among most polluted areas. Besides toxic smog causing delayed and/or cancelled flights and trains, it is the main cause of asthma and respiratory problems in the NCR. India is the third largest emitter of greenhouse gases carbon dioxide after China and the USA. Other cities and metros too may be slightly better but far from prescribed standard limits. In fact no Indian city can pass the pollution threshold limit of 20 on a scale of PM 2.5 set by WHO. It is measured as the number of small particles per cubic metre usually in terms of 2.5 or 10 microgram size of particles called PM 2.5 scale or PM 10 scale). Such particles may enter our blood through lungs and cause asthma, heart, lung problems.
Levels of pollution (annual average as measured in PM 2.5 scale) in our metros at a glance (can vary daily and may be worst in particular seasons).
Delhi - 125, Mumbai - 63, Chennai - 62, Kolkata - 61.
Another source of pollution is noise:
Though this form of pollution is unseen but it can be heard and it is silently causing problems. Sources of noise pollution are - aircrafts, vehicles, fireworks, religious and cultural functions, industries and rallies organised by political parties to name few.
Noise pollution can cause hearing defects, sleep problems, irritation and behavioural changes, anger, hypertension and even dementia. Even animals and birds are affected by it. Some baby birds have been reported dead due to extreme noise pollution.
Noise pollution is measured in decibels and the permissible limit for safety of the ears is 40- 45 decibels (db), while the sound produced by domestic pressure cooker is 70-75 db, aeroplane - 100120 db, TV and music system - 70-85 db, gunshot-140 db.
We can have an idea of noise pollution and overall pollution around us.