Up to 38% of the global cacao crop is generally lost each year to disease or pests, long before its bean-like seeds can be turned into cocoa and chocolate.
Different crop diseases affect cacao in Latin America and the Caribbean, West Africa, South-east Asia and the Pacific area. Emerging pest problems may become worse with climate change.
Diseases caused by phytophthora (the same fungus family that causes potato blight) and moniliophthoira pathogens dominate, along with swollen shoot disease and vascularstreak dieback.
Cocoa and chocolate come from the cacao bean. But up to 38% of the crop is lost.