Ship

Superyacht - - THE ELECTRICAL -

Could you al­so cla­ri­fy the dif­fe­ren­ce bet­ween elec­tric pro­pul­sion and hy­brid pro­pul­sion, that is if a dif­fe­ren­ce exists. Well a lit­tle light is cal­led for to cla­ri­fy so­me of the chao­tic ter­mi­no­lo­gy cur­ren­tly being used in the ma­ri­ti­me world. I’ll try to de my­sti­fy wi­th my own per­so­nal con­tri­bu­tion. The­re are two ty­pes of elec­tric pro­pul­sion: the fir­st is the prin­ci­pal or main elec­tric pro­pul­sion sy­stem and the se­cond one is an au­xi­lia­ry one. Ta­king the main one fir­st, 100% of the po­wer th­ru­st on the pro­pel­ler is pro­du­ced by an elec­tric en­gi­ne, whi­le in the se­cond ca­se the elec­tric en­gi­ne ge­ne­ral­ly de­li­vers a lit­tle less than 20% of the po­wer to the pro­pel­ler and is an al­ter­na­ti­ve to using the die­sel en­gi­ne. Ho­we­ver bo­th die­sel and elec­tric en­gi­nes can work at the sa­me ti­me (boo­ster mo­de). When the au­xi­lia­ry elec­tric en­gi­ne alo­ne is being de­ployed the boat speed will be less than than the top speed nor­mal­ly ob­tai­na­ble wi­th the die­sel en­gi­ne (nor­mal­ly wi­th 11% of avai­la­ble po­wer the boat will rea­ch 50% of its top speed). All of the cer­ti­fy­ing na­val bo­dies (Lloyd Re­gi­ster, DNV,GL, RINA, ABS) ha­ve been using APS data re­cords (Al­ter­na­ti­ve Pro­pul­sion Sy­stem)for de­ca­des whi­ch stan­dar­di­zes au­xi­lia­ry elec­tric pro­pul­sion. Ha­ving now de­fi­ned what is meant by elec­tric pro­pul­sion we’re going to look at “HY­BRID pro­pul­sion” whi­ch is the term by whi­ch we re­fer to tho­se pro­pul­si­ve sy­stems in whi­ch ener­gy is sto­red in two en­ti­re­ly di­ver­se ways: fuel and bat­te­ries. In this way the­re­fo­re the ship’s cap­tain will de­ci­de whi­ch sour­ce of ener­gy to use ac­cor­din­gly. And what is the die­sel elec­tric exac­tly and how does it work? Is it the sa­me sy­stem as the one used in trains or in crui­se ships? Exac­tly.the­re’s a die­sel en­gi­ne con­nec­ted to an al­ter­na­tor (whi­ch tran­sforms me­cha­ni­cal ener­gy in­to elec­tric ener­gy); whi­ch ge­ne­ra­tes elec­tric cur­rent whi­ch is then pas­sed th­rou­gh dri­vers de­ployed by an elec­tric en­gi­ne con­nec­ted to a dri­ve shaft whi­ch

de­li­vers po­wer to the pro­pel­ler. In a train for exam­ple the elec­tric en­gi­ne ma­kes the wheels spin so the sy­stem is con­cep­tual­ly the sa­me. For crui­se ships the sy­stem is al­so con­cep­tual­ly the sa­me. I mu­st point out the fol­lo­wing fact; a crui­se ship is ba­si­cal­ly a floa­ting ci­ty wi­th thou­sands of peo­ple li­ving on board.the­se “in­ha­bi­tan­ts” need loads of elec­tric ener­gy to li­ve well and ha­ve fun.the­re­fo­re the­re’s need for im­po­sing po­wer plan­ts si­mi­lar to the ones on land in a ci­ty. Con­se­quen­tly part of the elec­tric ener­gy re­qui­re­ment can be ea­si­ly de­ployed to work the pro­pel­lers. And what about the hy­brid sy­stem how does that work? And is it the sa­me as the one used in the au­to­mo­ti­ve in­du­stry? Bo­th sy­stems are con­cep­tual­ly ve­ry si­mi­lar be­cau­se the elec­tric au­xi­lia­ry en­gi­ne works as dri­ve en­gi­ne and as a gen. set. Well then why ha­ve hy­brid sy­stems in mo­tor cars be­co­me eco­lo­gi­cal? Well that’s be­cau­se in a hy­brid car the­re are two kinds of be­ne­fi­ts/ sa­vings: the fir­st is re­pre­sen­ted by the re­co­ve­ry of ener­gy ob­tai­ned when bra­king (the ener­gy thus ge­ne­ra­ted is not dis­si­pa­ted in the bra­kes but on the con­tra­ry it is sto­red in the bat­te­ries using the elec­tric au­xi­lia­ry en­gi­ne as a gen. set), the se­cond one op­ti­mi­zes the de­gree to whi­ch the die­sel en­gi­ne is to work thanks to an in­tel­li­gent con­trol of the elec­tric en­gi­ne/ gen. set whi­ch in­crea­ses the ef­fec­ti­ve­ness of the die­sel en­gi­ne. The fi­nal re­sult is a ve­hi­cle whi­ch uses less fuel and is the­re­fo­re less pol­lu­ting. On a ship thou­gh the­re’s on­ly the se­cond pos­si­bi­li­ty: an elec­tric au­xi­lia­ry en­gi­ne dou­bling as gen. set th­rou­gh an “in­tel­li­gent” con­trol whi­ch ac­cor­din­gly ge­ne­ra­tes low co­st elec­tric ener­gy wi­th re­du­ced to­xic emis­sion. This ener­gy can be sto­red in the bat­te­ries and can be de­ployed when re­qui­red as it is emis­sion free and is dead­ly quiet. A good re­sult can be ob­tai­ned on­ly when the­re’s an ove­rall and in­tel­li­gent ma­na­ge­ment of the po­wer split bet­ween the elec­tric en­gi­ne and the die­sel one. Still on the hy­brid to­pic we talk about de­gree of hy­bri­di­sa­tion : what does that mean? Does it ha­ve so­me­thing to do wi­th se­ve­ral of the va­rious hy­brid sy­stems we hear about? I don’t be­lie­ve we can talk about de­gree of hy­bri­di­sa­tion as su­ch if not in­ten­ding that it is on­ly pos­si­ble thanks to an in­tel­li­gent ma­na­ge­ment of the elec­tric po­wer avai­la­ble and the me­cha­ni­cal one to­ge­ther wi­th an op­ti­mi­sed use of the bat­te­ries them­sel­ves, then it is pos­si­ble to ex­ploit on board ener­gy at its be­st at lo­wer co­st and wi­th less harm­ful emis­sions. The­re­fo­re an ap­pro­pria­te use of PMS (Po­wer Ma­na­ge­ment Sy­stem) is ne­ces­sa­ry as it con­trols the forms of po­wer and avai­la­ble ener­gy ac­cor­din­gly. And this is exac­tly one of the strong poin­ts of our Au­xi­lia sy­stem thanks to our tech­ni­cal team’s de­di­ca­ted work. Are bat­te­ries in­di­spen­sa­ble in a hy­brid sy­stem? Wi­thout the ca­pa­ci­ty to sto­re the ener­gy pro­du­ced in an ef­fi­cient way, whi­le con­si­de­ring al­so en­vi­ron­men­tal pro­blems, we can­not real­ly talk about a real hy­brid sy­stem ap­pli­ca­ble to ships and ya­ch­ts. The next hurd­le is to ha­ve the kind of ef­fi­cient and low co­st tech­no­lo­gy whi­ch al­lo­ws us to sto­re ener­gy mo­re ef­fi­cien­tly.

When is it bet­ter to use hy­brid and when is it be­st to use die­sel elec­tric? We should re­mem­ber that on board ener­gy has ba­si­cal­ly th­ree dif­fe­rent ty­pes of use: pro­pul­sion, tech­ni­cal plan­ts and ho­tel ser­vi­ces. We can ha­ve a hy­brid ship of cour­se (one wi­th bat­te­ries in whi­ch to sto­re ener­gy) whi­ch uses bat­te­ries’ ener­gy to run tech­ni­cal plan­ts and ho­tel re­qui­re­men­ts alo­ne and not for pro­pul­sion. An im­por­tant exam­ple of this is pro­vi­ded by the six hy­brid ships com­mis­sio­ned by Gri­mal­di. They will car­ry a hu­ge bat­te­ry bank to ser­ve the ships’ ho­tel re­qui­re­men­ts when in port. This is to avoid no­xious emis­sions ge­ne­ra­ted by gen. se­ts whi­ch would be sup­ply­ing the ‘ho­tel’ re­qui­re­men­ts night af­ter night wi­th mu­ch en­vi­ron­men­tal pol­lu­tion. But in mo­re ge­ne­ral terms when the ship crui­ses ex­ten­si­ve­ly die­sel de­ploy­ment is a ne­ces­si­ty or when mo­ving slo­w­ly near coasts pe­rhaps pa­trol­ling a gi­ven area then the ad­van­ta­ges of­fe­red by hy­brid pro­pul­sion are no­ta­ble. Can you quo­te a few con­cre­te exam­ples of die­sel elec­tric and hy­brid uses? Well WIDER shi­pyard has built two me­ga ya­ch­ts (one is 150 feet long and the other is 165’) bo­th are po­we­red up wi­th die­sel elec­tric pro­pul­sion (main pro­pul­sion is elec­tric) and hy­brids. RTN the com­pa­ny I foun­ded using the “AU­XI­LIA ELEC­TRIC PRO­PUL­SION” brand hand­led the pro­ject de­si­gn work in terms of pro­pul­sion, as well as the in­stal­la­tion of the elec­tro­nic and elec­tric ma­chi­ne­ry. In this ca­se we’re loo­king at an all elec­tric pro­pul­sion sy­stem (100% of the po­wer to the pro­pel­lers is sup­plied by elec­tric en­gi­nes) via die­sel ge­ne­ra­tor se­ts and an enor­mous set of li­thium bat­te­ries. The gen. se­ts char­ge the bat­te­ries and when they are ful­ly loa­ded the gen. se­ts swit­ch them­sel­ves off.the ship works on bat­te­ry po­wer alo­ne for a few hours (the du­ra­tion is pro­por­tio­nal to the in­ten­si­ty of the ex­ploi­ta­tion of the sa­me). When the ener­gy sto­red in the bat­te­ries drops be­low 20% the gen. se­ts kick off au­to­ma­ti­cal­ly and be­gin to re­char­ge. The sa­me con­cept has been ap­plied to hy­brid ships wi­th elec­tri­cal au­xi­lia­ry en­gi­nes (whe­re the elec­tric en­gi­ne sup­plies on­ly 10 to 15 per cent of the po­wer nee­ded for the pro­pel­lers) gua­ran­teeing the ad­van­ta­ges of elec­tric hy­brid pro­pul­sion from ze­ro to 10/12 kno­ts (Be­net­ti, Azi­mut, San Lo­ren­zo etc). Whi­ch are the smal­le­st and lar­ge­st si­zes whe­re hy­brid sy­stems are bet­ter sui­ted? Elec­tri­cal sy­stems and bat­te­ries are co­stly items. Far from the costs of tho­se for the au­to­mo­ti­ve in­du­stry. In ma­ri­ne na­val terms the num­bers are a lot smal­ler and it is the­re­fo­re mo­re dif­fi­cult to com­pa­re. Fur­ther­mo­re elec­tric pro­pul­sion’s com­ple­xi­ties even in a small ya­cht are ve­ry si­mi­lar to tho­se of a lar­ge one. For the­se rea­sons pri­ces don’t va­ry in a con­si­stent li­near way at lea­st ac­cor­ding to si­ze ran­ge and pro­por­tio­nal­ly spea­king hy­brid pro­pul­sion costs mo­re on smal­ler ya­ch­ts than on lar­ger ones. The­re are de fac­to no li­mi­ts in terms of leng­th but su­re­ly costs are mo­re quic­kly re­co­ve­ra­ble on lar­ger uni­ts. The full hy­brid ver­sion in­stal­led on the Ma­gel-

lan 50 a smal­li­sh 15 me­tre ya­cht has been equip­ped by Au­xi­lia for the Azi­mut Be­net­ti group in 2012:but whi­le the die­sel pro­pul­sion ver­sion pro­ved suc­ces­sfull the hy­brid one was not. Was this due to the fact it was too in­no­va­ti­ve a pro­ject gi­ven the nau­ti­cal mar­ket’s con­ser­va­ti­ve ten­den­cy? The hy­brid ver­sion in the Ma­gel­lan 50 was for us a real chal­len­ge whi­ch we over­ca­me suc­ces­sful­ly thanks al­so to Azi­mut’s R&D de­part­ment. The end re­sult was an in­tel­li­gent hy­brid sy­stem whi­ch is in­tui­ti­ve, and user friend­ly. The do­wn­si­de was that the pri­ce for this choi­ce of­fe­red on re­que­st was 20 % of the ya­cht’s va­lue! The mar­ket sim­ply did not go for it at the ti­me gi­ven the re­la­ti­ve few hours of use a ya­cht of the ty­pe un­der­goes sea­so­nal­ly it can­not even think about re­co­ve­ring costs by sa­ving on fuel not even in a li­fe­ti­me, so it was not co­st ef­fec­ti­ve. To­day thou­gh parts and bat­te­ry pri­ces ha­ve go­ne do­wn so­mewhat and will tend to do so in the fo­re­seea­ble fu­tu­re whi­ch could mean 5% of the unit’s va­lue again­st the pre­vious 20%. This would cer­tain­ly al­low for a mu­ch wider all round use of the hy­brid so­lu­tion. Ha­ve the­se in­stal­la­tions been ma­de to other small ya­ch­ts other than on the Ma­gel­lan 50’? We need to un­der­stand what is meant by “small”. Ac­ting now on be­half of AU­XI­LIA ELEC­TRIC PRO­PUL­SION, we ha­ve to da­te in­stal­led about twen­ty of our hy­brid or full elec­tric plan­ts to ya­ch­ts of eve­ry ma­jor brand ( Azi­mut-be­net­ti, San Lo­ren­zo, Wider, Wal­ly, and so on). The­se ya­ch­ts go from about 15 me­tres to near­ly 60. Wi­thout de­li­ve­ring a com­ple­te li­sting I can re­mem­ber the fir­st and the la­te­st ea­si­ly: in 2008 Be­net­ti Le­gend was the fir­st to ha­ve been in­stal­led wi­th elec­tric pro­pul­sion whi­ch star­ted the trend. The la­te­st one was the Dy­na­miq D3, de­si­gned wi­th “Por­sche De­si­gn”.this ya­cht pos­ses­ses an au­xi­lia­ry elec­tric pro­pul­sion sy­stem equip­ped wi­th la­te­st ge­ne­ra­tion POD wi­th coun­ter ro­ta­ting pro­pel­lers dri­ven by va­ria­ble rpm die­sel gen. se­ts. Do you think that soo­ner or la­ter it will be pos­si­ble to de­ploy on­ly elec­tric po­wer hou­ses to pro­pel ships and ya­ch­ts wi­th no ti­me li­mi­ts? The ca­pa­ci­ty to sto­re li­mi­tless ener­gy is the the­me re­gar­ding fu­tu­re mo­bi­li­ty.for de­ca­des and de­ca­des we ha­ve de­ployed fos-

sil forms of it as ener­gy con­tai­ners to trans­port peo­ple and things. We’re on the th­re­shold of a new era whi­ch will bring about the gra­dual eli­mi­na­tion of fos­sil fuels be they in li­quid or ga­seous form used in ship­ping and other forms of trans­por­ta­tion. This will oc­cur in ea­ch sec­tor gra­dual­ly: land trans­por­ta­tion, air pla­nes and ships. Bat­te­ry tech­no­lo­gy is still in its pri­me but over the pa­st few de­ca­des giant leaps ha­ve been ma­de in this field. Cer­tain­ly we’ll be wit­nes­sing ve­ry in­te­re­sting things in the fo­re­seea­ble fu­tu­re. Ho­we­ver any way you tac­kle the si­tua­tion the pro­duc­tion of elec­tric ener­gy nee­ded to char­ge bat­te­ries wi­th is the pro­blem. But that is ano­ther to­pic. From a pu­re­ly fi­nan­cial view point as is for the au­to­mo­ti­ve in­du­stry, is elec­tric pro­pul- sion mo­re ex­pen­si­ve? Can you ou­tli­ne this in broad terms for us? And so­me idea of amor­ti­sa­tion over ti­me. We put pen to pa­per and wi­th an im­por­tant ship yard we at­temp­ted to esti­ma­te so­me of the costs in­vol­ved for per­ti­nent plan­ts in the na­val and re­crea­tio­nal boa­ting sec­tor. And wi­th no in­tent of being ex­hau­sti­ve I’d li­ke to hi­ghlight a few poin­ts. As­su­ming that 100 is the co­st of a con­ven­tio­nal pro­pul­sion sy­stem (en­gi­ne, gear­box, stuf­fing box, dri­ve shaft, pro­pel­lers and so on), an elec­tri­cal one wi­th die­sel ( elec­tric en­gi­ne to de­li­ver 100% ener­gy to the pro­pel­ler) costs 300 whi­ch is th­ree ti­mes mo­re. An au­xi­lia­ry pro­pul­sion (wi­th elec­tric en­gi­ne de­li­ve­ring on­ly 20% of the po­wer nee­ded) costs 130-140, so 30/40% mo­re than a tra­di­tio­nal sy­stem. In this ca­se mo­re than 50% of the ma­xi­mum ya­cht speed can be ob­tai­ned wi­th a set of ‘frin­ge be­ne­fi­ts’ in terms of fuel re­duc­tion and grea­ter on board com­fort thanks to less noi­se and la­st but not lea­st less no­xious emis­sion from the ex­hau­st pi­pes. Ob­viou­sly the “old“die­sel en­gi­ne can be used to de­li­ver crui­sing and top speeds when re­qui­red. I am cer­tain that au­xi­lia­ry pro­pul­sion is the be­st choi­ce avai­la­ble and the ea­sie­st one to amor­ti­se in so­me ca­ses in ju­st a few years. Whi­ch is Au­xi­lia’s ro­le in an elec­tric ship? Let’s fir­st con­si­der the needs of li­ve aboard peo­ple or tho­se spen­ding long pe­riods on board their ya­ch­ts. Wi­th in­put from ow­ners and shi­pyards we can draw up the mo­st sui­ta­ble so­lu­tion by ana­ly­sing all the va­ria­bles. We then pro­ceed to fi­na­li­ze the pro­ject and or­der the ma­te­rial nee­ded to in­te­gra­te all the ma­chi­ne­ry in­vol­ved. The fi­nal pha­se is ma­de up of tests and fi­ne tu­ning prior to de­li­ve­ry of the ya­cht to the ow­ner. We ca­re for pro­ject de­si­gn work ju­st as mu­ch as we do for de­tails and the “in­tel­li­gen­ce” be­hind the ma­na­ge­ment of ea­ch

sy­stem we in­stall ta­king in­to ac­count the di­stri­bu­tion of po­wer via PMS or “Po­wer Ma­na­ge­ment Sy­stem” be­cau­se the de­gree of suc­cess of a hy­brid pro­pul­sion is all in that. Whi­ch are the main com­po­nen­ts de­ve­lo­ped by Au­xi­lia for an elec­tri­cal­ly pro­pel­led ship? One of the ma­jor fac­tors for a hy­brid ship is the way in whi­ch the en­gi­ne/ge­ne­ra­tor is set up in the en­gi­ne room. Tra­di­tio­nal PTO/PTI sy­stems are hea­vi­ly li­mi­ted and do not ta­ke in­to ac­count any form of op­ti­mi­sa­tion of the sy­stem whe­re PTI means “Po­wer Ta­ke In” and PTO means Po­wer Ta­ke Out”.in mo­st ca­ses they are me­cha­ni­cal com­po­nen­ts in­si­de the gear box / in­ver­ter ca­sing whi­ch ex­tract po­wer from the main en­gi­ne (PTO) or in­tro­du­ce po­wer whi­ch goes to the pro­pel­ler (PTI). Elec­tric ma­chi­ne­ry is in­stal­led on PTO/PTI to ge­ne­ra­te ener­gy as a gen. set or elec­tric en­gi­ne for au­xi­lia­ry pro­pul­sion. This is why we de­vi­sed and pa­ten­ted a pri­ma­ry en­gi­ne/ge­ne­ra­tor sy­stem whi­ch is in­stal­led di­rec­tly on­to the die­sel en­gi­ne’s fly­wheel (AU­XI­LIA HY­BRID MO­TOR/GE­NE­RA­TOR). Wi­th this in­no­va­ti­ve AU­XI­LIA en­gi­ne/ge­ne­ra­tor we are cer­tain of de­li­ve­ring the mo­st re­lia­ble, ea­sy to use and ef­fi­cient so­lu­tion to our clien­ts. I wi­sh to un­der­sco­re our sy­stem pos­ses­ses a pa­ten­ted “cen­tri­fu­gal clut­ch” whi­ch is re­lia­ble and does not re­qui­re any spe­cial con­trol. Years of stu­dy and ma­ny tests we­re in­ve­sted in this pro­ject whi­ch led us to do away wi­th other less ef­fi­cient tech­ni­cal so­lu­tions (among whi­ch elec­tri­cal­ly ac­ti­va­ted or hy­drau­lic clut­ches that we­re not en­ti­re­ly re­lia­ble),whi­le this ty­pe of clut­ch sy­stem gua­ran­tees sim­pli­ci­ty re­lia­bi­li­ty and sa­fe­ty. What’s new chez Au­xi­lia and what’s in sto­re for the near fu­tu­re? Of­ten enou­gh shi­pyards and ow­ners ha­ve had bad ex­pe­rien­ces wi­th hy­brid sy­stems whi­ch put them off un­der­stan­da­bly. The cau­se as of­ten hap­pens was due to im­pro­vi­sed in­stal­lers who knew ve­ry lit­tle. Un­for­tu­na­te­ly de­spi­te my ef­forts the­re are still a num­ber of sup­pliers clai­ming they are ex­perts when they are not and clien­ts get hurt. The­mes as the in­te­gra­tion wi­th other on board plan­ts, pro­blems of elec­tro­ma­gne­tic com­pa­ti­bi­li­ty of so­me of the en­gi­nee­ring, coo­ling sy­stems ju­st to na­me a few when ta­ken lightly wi­thout the re­qui­red com­pe­ten­ce and know how are su­re to land short of the mark and cau­se any hy­brid pro­ject to fail. At RTN/ AU­XI­LIA, we’re cur­ren­tly wor­king on sim­pli­fy­ing the sy­stem, to ma­ke it mo­re user friend­ly al­so from in­stal­lers’ view point. The new sy­stem will be in­tui­ti­ve wi­th plug & play tech­no­lo­gy. The Eu­ro­pean Com­mu­ni­ty awar­ded AU­XI­LIA the “SEAL OF EXCELLENCE” mo­ti­va­ted by the fact that our hy­brid plant is “The so­le hy­brid dri­ve to pro­vi­de small-to-me­dium ships wi­th an eco­lo­gi­cal eco­no­mi­cal and com­for­ta­ble pro­pul­sion”. We want to of­fer the sim­ple­st sy­stem pos­si­ble so that our clien­ts can ful­ly en­joy the be­ne­fi­ts and ad­van­ta­ges of our hy­brid avoi­ding un­wan­ted tech­no­lo­gic com­pli­ca­tions and hea­da­ches. The­re are plen­ty of new things on the way! One la­st que­stion: can hy­brid pro­pul­sion pa­ve the way to ma­ke new ya­ch­ts com­pliant to in­ter­na­tio­nal re­qui­si­tes and norms whi­ch year af­ter year be­co­me in­crea­sin­gly ri­go­rous and de­man­ding in terms of pol­lu­tion cau­sed by mo­tor ya­ch­ts and ships? The norms con­cer­ning ma­ri­ne die­sel emis­sions by Tier lll of the IMO (In­ter­na­tio­nal Ma­ri­ti­me Or­ga­ni­sa­tion) re­que­st that new mo­tor ya­ch­ts over 500 Gross Tons wi­th keels in­stal­led af­ter Ja­nua­ry 1st 2016 are to re­du­ce harm­ful NOX gas emis­sions from the en­gi­nes’ ex­hau­st pi­pes by 70% ( a ve­ry re­stric­ti­ve and chal­len­ging va­lue). In spi­te of the dif­fi­cul­ties and com­ple­xi­ties in fin­ding va­lid tech­ni­cal so­lu­tions the­re are plen­ty of new ya­ch­ts being built in com­plian­ce wi­th Tier III norms. What be­gan ju­st a han­d­ful of years ago as a chal­len­ge for our sec­tor is be­co­ming stan­dard prac­ti­ce for the be­ne­fit of the en­vi­ron­ment. Cur­ren­tly to da­te Nor­th Ame­ri­can and Ca­rib­bean wa­ters are co­ve­red by Tier lll NOX norms whi­le the sea con­tou­ring the Scan­di­na­vian pe­nin­su­la com­ply to SOX. Cer­tain­ly the­re will be others, and pro­ba­bly al­so for Me­di­ter­ra­nean wa­ters. In any ca­se ocean cros­sing ya­ch­ts are plen­ty and con­se­quen­tly eve­ryo­ne will ha­ve to com­ply to TIER lll un­less they wi­sh to be ex­clu­ded from crui­sing TIER lll zo­nes. Eve­ry ow­ner can de­ci­de for him­self and whe­ther or not he wi­shes to help re­du­ce pol­lu­tion. We be­lie­ve that hy­brid sy­stems on su­pe­rya­ch­ts are the be­st pos­si­ble so­lu­tion and in our own small we way are mo­re than hap­py in con­tri­bu­ting.

Ma­ke up of an elec­tric au­xi­lia­ry en­gi­ne via PTI. “Po­wer Ta­ke In” com­pri­se com­po­nen­ts (ge­ne­ral­ly rods) of the gear box whi­ch ex­tract po­wer from the main en­gi­ne ( PTO or “Po­wer Ta­ke Out” or di­rect it to the pro­pel­ler. An elec­tric de­vi­ce is in­stal­led on­to PTO/PTI whi­ch ac­ts as a gen. set sup­ply­ing ener­gy or as an elec­tric en­gi­ne ex­ploi­ted as an au­xi­lia­ry. The main ad­van­ta­ges are: the elec­tric en­gi­ne can be di­scon­nec­ted when the­re’s a pro­blem, its light­ness, and re­du­ced si­ze. The di­sad­van­ta­ges are: spa­ce enou­gh for dri­ve shaf­ts, the in­stal­la­tion and pur­po­se built ba­se in whi­ch to lod­ge the elec­tric en­gi­ne, to build a PTI wi­th ad­di­tio­nal re­qui­red gea­ring me­cha­ni­sm, chan­ge of en­gi­ne ro­ta­tion to elec­tric mo­de and ca­pa­ci­ty to ge­ne­ra­te ener­gy on­ly whi­le crui­sing.

An elec­tric hy­brid au­xi­lia­ry en­gi­ne sy­stem (fig 02a) of­fers two yields one is re­la­ti­ve to the func­tio­ning of the four stro­ke en­gi­ne( blue gra­ph) and the other when the elec­tric one is de­ployed (yel­low gra­ph).clear­ly the de­gree of ef­fi­cien­cy is con­si­de­ra­bly hi­gher in the elec­tric sy­stem whi­ch is ho­we­ver de­pen­dant on a scar­ce­ly rea­li­stic ener­gy stoc­king ca­pa­ci­ty in bat­te­ries. We can sup­ply loads of ener­gy to bat­te­ries wi­th a gen. set, but at that point fur­ther tran­sfor­ma­tion of ener­gy cau­ses loss of ove­rall ef­fi­cien­cy whi­ch ma­ke the sy­stem less ef­fi­cient than a con­ven­tio­nal me­cha­ni­cal four stro­ke en­gi­ne (fig 02 b).

Ma­ke up of hy­brid AU­XI­LIA en­gi­ne(on SAE fly­wheel). SAE are the ini­tials whi­ch show the stan­dar­di­sa­tion of die­sel en­gi­ne fly­wheels. Thanks to this the elec­tric /ge­ne­ra­tor Au­xi­lia en­gi­ne is in­stal­led on­to fly­wheels wi­th stan­dard uni­ver­sal brac­ke­ts for (CA­TER­PIL­LAR, MAN, CUMMINS, MTU en­gi­nes etc.. And the­re­fo­re the­re is no need for PTO/PTI. Main fea­tu­res are lit­tle spa­ce nee­ded, com­pact si­ze, on­ly 60 – 70 cm nee­ded. Adap­ta­ble to any SAE stan­dard, can link to eve­ry en­gi­ne and gear box, no need for ad­di­tio­nal me­cha­ni­sms to gear box, ca­pa­ci­ty to ge­ne­ra­te ener­gy any ti­me even when in neu­tral wi­th ship not mo­ving, ca­pa­ci­ty to swit­ch pro­pel­ler ro­ta­tion in elec­tric mo­de in few se­conds. The di­sad­van­ta­ges are: hea­vier than PTI so­lu­tion in terms of weight, lon­ger si­ze of the ove­rall sy­stem.

View of AU­XI­LIA elec­tric en­gi­ne/ge­ne­ra­tor in­stal­led on­to a fly­wheel

Con­cep­tual brea­k­do­wn of hy­brid AU­XI­LIA plant

AU­XI­LIA elec­tric en­gi­ne/ge­ne­ra­tor rea­dy for ben­ch testing (fig. 6a), cou­pled to the main die­sel en­gi­ne (fig. 6b), on board of a San Lo­ren­zo 106 (fig. 6c).

Func­tio­nal map­ping of hy­brid au­xi­lia­ry sy­stem car­ried out by Au­xi­lia for Ad­mi­ral’s E MO­TION 55m: this is a hy­brid sy­stem ma­de up of two main 1000 KW die­sel en­gi­nes and two Au­xi­lia 150 KW elec­tric en­gi­nes whi­ch act on two con­ven­tio­nal dri­ve shaf­ts. The top speed de­cla­red is of 16.5 kno­ts wi­th the die­sels and 9 kno­ts wi­th the elec­tric ones.

Func­tio­nal map­ping of the hy­brid sy­stem de­si­gned for Wider 165 and 150 car­ried out by AU­XI­LIA and sup­plied by RTN: this is a real die­sel-elec­tric hy­brid spor­ting two elec­tric en­gi­nes de­ve­lo­ping 531 KW ea­ch wi­th POD wi­th a top speed of 15 kno­ts.

Func­tio­nal map­ping of the hy­brid sy­stem car­ried out by Au­xi­lia for the Ca­na­dos OCEANIC 140’ SUV: this is a mo­re ar­ti­cu­la­ted sy­stem wi­th th­ree 1940 KW die­sel en­gi­nes and two Au­xi­lia 120 KW elec­tric en­gi­nes wi­th POD. The top speed de­cla­red is 28 kno­ts wi­th the die­sels and 9 kno­ts wi­th the elec­tric ones.

Con­cep­tual brea­k­do­wn of Au­xi­lia hy­brid en­gi­ne for Ma­gel­la­no 50: of­fe­red by Azi­mut Be­net­ti in 2012 show ca­sing that hy­brid is pos­si­ble on any boat, even on re­la­ti­ve­ly small ones: it’s on­ly a que­stion of the ‘ex­tra’ co­st in pro­por­tion to the va­lue of the boat… at lea­st for the ti­me being.

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