‘Huguan Siou’ legacy of the Kadazan­dusuns

The Borneo Post (Sabah) - - HOME - Datuk Ir John An­thony, KDCA Sec­re­tary Gen­eral

ON June 10, 2018, Gun­do­hing Sindin Ringin­gon elab­o­rated on his state­ment, “We need a Huguan Siou”. A week af­ter on June 17, 2018, Gun­do­hing Raymond Boin Tom­bung wrote and elab­o­rated on his ques­tion, “Do we still need a Huguan Siou?”, and since then KDCA has been in­un­dated with calls urg­ing the KDCA to re­spond to the cre­ated is­sues re­gard­ing the Huguan Siou.

With bless­ing from Huguan Siou, Tan Sri Joseph Pairin Datuk Kitin­gan, KDCA needs to is­sue its own press state­ment to clar­ify cer­tain per­ti­nent is­sues re­gard­ing the “Huguan Siou” legacy for the Kadazan­dusuns.

Cer­tainly, the Kadazan­dusun Cul­tural As­so­ci­a­tion, Sabah KDCA views that, for the multi-eth­nic Kadazan­dusun com­mu­nity, to dis­own their very own Huguan Siou is the curse that must be avoided at all costs at all times.

To ask, “Do we still need a Huguan Siou?” - is like ask­ing “Do we still need a fa­ther?” - within our very own fam­ily, for­get­ting all the fa­therly suc­ces­sive Huguan Siou’s past sac­ri­fices and benev­o­lent deeds.

Lest we for­get, es­pe­cially our young gen­er­a­tion, within the so­cial or­ga­ni­za­tion of the Kadazan­dusun Com­mu­nity there are of a num­ber of vi­tal so­cial cul­tural her­itage in­sti­tu­tions by which the com­mu­nity have uniquely or­ga­nized and or­dered their so­cio-spir­i­tual, cul­tural, po­lit­i­cal, eco­nomic and well-be­ing ac­cord­ing to their Adat since time im­memo­rial and have re­fined these or­ga­ni­za­tional sys­tems over gen­er­a­tions in ac­cor­dance with the rel­e­vance and needs of their times. Among these her­itage so­cial in­sti­tu­tions are the Mo­mo­lian and Huguan Siou in­sti­tu­tions.

The Mo­mo­lian her­itage be­liefs sys­tem of the Kadazan­dusuns has al­ways been the source of divine en­light­en­ment and our “re­li­gion”, sense of con­nec­tiv­ity to our divine Cre­ator Ki­noin­gan that has made the Kadazan­dusuns uniquely divine-cen­tered in their in­ten­tions, words, thoughts and ac­tions and hence one of the high trust indigenous so­ci­eties of the world.

Un­for­tu­nately, we have for so long been led to mis­un­der­stand our her­itage Mo­mo­lian be­liefs and have joined the oth­ers to even con­demn it, with­out re­spect­fully know­ing its fun­da­men­tal uni­ver­sally shared so­cio-spir­i­tual val­ues and prac­tices. For deeper in­sights and en­light­en­ment on the Mo­mo­lian­ism philoso­phies, tenets, mantric ri­naits, rites and prac­tices, KDCA now of­fers the newly pub­lished book, “Kadazan­dusunoloji om Ri­nait”.

Suf­fice for us to state here in this pa­per that the Kadazan­dusun her­itage Mo­mo­lian be­liefs are es­sen­tially a set of di­vin­is­tic spir­i­tual tenets, rules of be­hav­iour and mode of life on this tem­po­rary world Wi­norun (Earth). The Kadazan­dusuns have some­how in­gen­u­ously fit­ted their univer­sal spir­i­tual be­liefs and val­ues sys­tem into their so­cio- cul­tural way of life and made it into laws known as adat and in so do­ing main­tain a twin level of Jus­tice sys­tems: Divine Spir­i­tual Jus­tice and Hu­man Adat Jus­tice, upon which the Huguan Siou in­sti­tu­tional legacy has al­ways been premised.

Fully un­der­stand­ing the pos­i­tive roles and func­tions of Mo­mo­lian­ism as the di­vin­is­tic premise and foun­da­tions of the func­tional ex­is­tence of the Huguan Siou legacy, the KDCA Cul­tural Her­itage and Bobo­lians Com­mit­tee un­der the chair­man­ship of Dk Dr Bernard Maraat dur­ing its meet­ing on June 29, 2018 un­equiv­o­cally re­it­er­ated and unan­i­mously ex­pressed their full sup­port not only to the cur­rent Huguan Siou but also pledged to give full sup­port to­wards the get­ting both the Fed­eral and the State full recog­ni­tion and sup­port­ive fund­ing to the Huguan Siou In­sti­tu­tion.

Lest we for­get, the Huguan Siou in­sti­tu­tion in the per­son of Huguan Siou Tun Fuad Stephens was a vi­tal sig­na­tory to the for­ma­tion of Malaysia, but un­for­tu­nately, be­ing green in the po­lit­i­cal or­ga­ni­za­tion at that time, our lead­ers con­ve­niently over­looked and for­got to state our le­git­i­mate right for the full recog­ni­tion and pro­vi­sion of the Of­fi­cial Res­i­dence and Of­fice of the Huguan Siou.

With­out Huguan Siou Tun Fuad Stephens as one of the sig­na­to­ries, our na­tion Malaysia would not have been formed. The KDCA Cul­tural Her­itage and Bobo­lian com­mit­tee thus urges the KDCA along with all other ex­ist­ing Kadazan­dusun or­ga­ni­za­tions to unite their ef­forts to pur­sue the full recog­ni­tion of the Kadazan­dusun Huguan Siou in­sti­tu­tion by the gov­ern­ment of the day, as our long for­got­ten right that has been ig­nored ever since the first Kadazan­dusun Na­tional Huguan Siou signed and de­clared full sup­port for the for­ma­tion of Malaysia. The Huguan Siou YAB Tun Fuad Stephens was in full Kadazan­dusun tra­di­tional at­tire at the procla­ma­tion of Malaysia at what is now known as Padang Merdeka in Kota Kinabalu City.

Like­wise when Tun Fuad Stephens was posted as Malaysian Am­bas­sador to Aus­tralia, he never failed to of­fi­cially put on his full Kadazan­dusun Huguan Siou tra­di­tional cos­tumes.

Both the KDCA Cul­tural Her­itage & Bobo­lian Com­mit­tee and the KDCA Group Mem­bers meet­ing de­lib­er­ated and agreed that it is the fun­da­men­tal right of the Kadazan­dusun Com­mu­nity to have its Huguan Siou In­sti­tu­tion fully ac­cepted, rec­og­nized and re­spected by both the Malaysian Fed­eral and Sabah State Gov­ern­ment. It is true that our past lead­ers may have con­ve­niently for­got­ten to claim this com­mu­nal right, but it is never too late to fully doc­u­ment the le­git­i­macy of this right and sub­mit it for the con­sid­er­a­tion and ap­proval by both the Fed­eral and State Gov­ern­ment.

It must be re­mem­bered that the Huguan Siou In­sti­tu­tion is not a re­cent cre­ation of the Kadazan­dusun com­mu­nity as it has evolved one with the ex­is­tence of the com­mu­nity since time im­memo­rial.

The “Huguan Siou” Paramount Lead­er­ship In­sti­tu­tion of the Kadazan­dusun multi-eth­nic com­mu­nity has its foun­da­tions from the re­spec­tive eth­nic lead­er­ship in­sti­tu­tion long be­fore they united cul­tur­ally and po­lit­i­cally on the eve of colo­nial gover­nance and at the dawn of Malaysian pol­i­tics.

Among the Kadazan­dusun subeth­nic paramount lead­er­ship ti­tles are:

1. Vo­zoon for the Run­gus of Ku­dat

2. Mogkok­ounan for the Tuha­wons of Tam­bunans

3. Baani for the Mi­nokoks of Ton­god

4. Mo­ing Tayo for the Kui­jau of Keningau

5. Ja­nung Gayuh for the Bisayas of Beau­fort

6. Tin­darama for the Tin­dals of Kota Be­lud

7. Tumpu for the To­bilungs of Kota Marudu

8. Tagazo-Gazo for the Sungeis of Kin­abatan­gan

9. Huguan Siou for the Kadazans of Pe­nam­pang

10. Kala­won for the Mu­ruts of Nabawan

11. Bungkakaron for the Tatanas of Kuala Penyu

12. Ti­tiw Mo­mo­gun for the Suang Lo­tuds of Tuaran

13. Tindai Lundu for the Ker­anaan Li­wans (SAKAG) of Tam­bunan

14. Ugor Ugor for the Tidungs of Se­batik Tawau

15. Lin­in­tuodon for the Tom­bon­uos of Pitas

There are of course nu­mer­ous other Kadazan­dusun Sub-eth­nic com­mu­ni­ties who may have their own terms for their re­spec­tive Paramount Lead­ers in in the past which will be shared in other up­com­ing re­search works and pub­li­ca­tions.

Our fo­cus for now will be evo­lu­tion­ary unity of our multi-eth­nic Kadazan­dusuns to ac­knowl­edge and rec­og­nize a uni­fied State and Na­tional Paramount Leader in the cur­rent Huguan Siou In­sti­tu­tion.

1. The In­sti­tu­tion: “The HUGUAN SIOU Legacy” (THE FIRST AMONG EQUALS)

2. Ter­mi­nol­ogy: “HUGUAN SIOU” adopted from the Tan­gara’ Pe­nam­pang and Pa­par Kadazan­dusun di­alect.

3. The Essence: Philo­soph­i­cal & Philo­log­i­cal Foun­da­tion: KADAZANDUSUNOLOGY founded on (Di­vin­ity in Hu­man­ity & Hu­man­ity in Di­vin­ity)

4. Legacy Foun­da­tion: The ADAT & KADAZAN­DUSUN SO­CIO-CUL­TURAL IN­STI­TU­TIONAL HER­ITAGE (Kadazan­dusun Com­mon/ Tra­di­tional Laws & So­cial Or­ga­ni­za­tional Sys­tem)

5. The Con­ven­tion: COUN­CIL OF EL­DERS

6. The Cul­tural Man­i­fes­ta­tion: RITES & SYM­BOL­ISM (INSIGNIAS, AT­TIRE, SIGA, ILANG)

7. The House: KDCAHONGKOD KOISAAN KADAZAN­DUSUN (KADAZAN­DUSUN UNITY CEN­TRE).

There is a rea­son why the KCA Le­gal Ad­viser, the late Fred Soli­bun en­tered the pro­vi­sion in the KCA/KDCA Con­sti­tu­tion to vest within KDCA the power to be­stow the high­est Kadazan­dusun Tit­u­lar Award of Huguan Siou.

Re­cently formed Mo­mo­gun Na­tional Congress (MNC) must have its own bap­tism of fire and proof of ser­vices and deeds to over­come chal­lenges faced by the Kadazan­dusun com­mu­nity first be­fore it can claim to be cham­pi­oning the cause of the Kadazan­dusuns, in­clud­ing claim­ing its le­git­i­macy to be the body to hold the power and au­thor­ity to award the “Huguan Siou” paramount lead­er­ship ti­tle.

Lest we for­get, af­ter the mys­te­ri­ous tragic “dou­ble six” in­ci­dent that claimed the lives of the top three prom­i­nent Kadazan­dusun lead­ers at that time in the per­sons of Huguan Siou YAB Tun Fuad Stephens (Chief Min­is­ter of Sabah), the Golden Son of the Kadazan Datuk Peter Mo­juntin (KCA Pa­tron) and Datuk Dar­ius Bin­ion (KCA Chair­man) the Kadazan­dusun com­mu­nity was sud­denly plunged into a pe­riod of pro­longed mourn­ing, un­cer­tainty and sense of hope­less­ness.

It was while the Kadazan­dusun Com­mu­nity as a whole was at a loss, in quandary and un­cer­tainty, that KCA (KDCA) had to pick up the Sun­d­uan do Huguan Siou, Sun­d­uan do Kadazan­dusun (Huguan Siou Spirit along with the Kadazan­dusun Com­mu­nity Spirit), from the rub­bles of Sem­bu­lan Air Crash site for the Kadazan­dusuns to rise above their grief and loss and bounce back to re­al­ity and re­spond to the Kadazan­dusun com­mu­nity’s needs of the times.

In 1976, the care­taker act­ing Chair­man of KCA, Datuk Clarence E. Man­sul, re­cruited new blood into the KCA fold that in­cluded Datuk James Ongk­ili and Datuk Joseph Pairin Kitin­gan.

Thus in 1977, the lead­er­ship of the KCA was opened up to the greater Kadazan­dusun Com­mu­nity outside KCA’s do­main ori­gin district of Pe­nam­pang, with Datuk James Ongk­ili made the KCA Pa­tron, Datuk Joseph Pairin Kitin­gan voted as Chair­man and Datuk Clarence E. Man­sul voted as Deputy Chair­man, Gun­do­hing Ignatius Stephen Malan­jum ap­pointed as Sec­re­tary Gen­eral and Gun­do­hing Ge­orge An­son Kun­jan as Trea­surer Gen­eral.

Since then charis­matic Datuk Joseph Pairin Kitin­gan made it his spe­cial mis­sion to pro­mote KCA through­out Sabah, ze­ro­ing on the in­volve­ment and par­tic­i­pa­tion of as many as pos­si­ble of the di­verse Kadazan­dusun eth­nic com­mu­ni­ties from the var­i­ous re­gions and dis­tricts of Sabah. By the first KCA Del­e­gates Con­fer­ence in 1979, un­der Datuk Joseph Pairin’s chair­man­ship, KCA mem­ber­ship and Lead­er­ship fur­ther spread to other eth­nic com­mu­nity lo­cal­i­ties in Sabah that in­cluded the fol­low­ing rep­re­sen­ta­tive Cen­tral Com­mit­tee lead­ers of KCA then:

1. Gun­do­hing Paul Bak­lin for Belu­ran

2. Gun­do­hing Dun­stan Dumpan­gol forKeningau

3. Gun­do­hing Vil­son Mal­ingka for Kota Marudu

4. Gun­do­hing Samad Dimok for Bingkor Keningau

5. Gun­do­hing Malek Chua for Kin­abatan­gan

6. Gun­do­hing Michael Mad­i­nal for Tan­dek

7. Gun­do­hing Claudius Sun­dang Alex for Pa­par

8. Gun­do­hing Se­bas­tian An­jim for Kuala Penyu

At the 2nd KCA Del­e­gates Con­fer­ence more re­gional and eth­nic rep­re­sen­ta­tives were voted into the KCA Cen­tral Com­mit­tee in­clud­ing:

1. Toh Puan Rahimah Stephens for Ki­ulu

2. Zandi Irene Beng­gon for Mengggatal

3. Gun­do­hing San­gau Gunt­ing for Tam­bunan

The rep­re­sen­ta­tive lead­er­ship of KCA for the Kadazan­dusun mul­ti­eth­nic com­mu­ni­ties was al­ready un­ri­valled then at that time.

Cur­rently, KDCA has some 600 ac­tive reg­is­tered branches man­aged through­out its 29 District Co­or­di­nat­ing Com­mit­tees in­clud­ing Labuan Fed­eral Ter­ri­tory. Be­sides this KDCA has four other Un­at­tached Co­or­di­nat­ing Com­mit­tees that in­clude: 1. KDCA HQ Pe­nam­pang, Sabah 2. Klang Val­ley 3. KDCA Jo­hore Ba­haru 4. KDCA Pe­nang When the un­pop­u­lar generic iden­tity “pribumi” was pro­posed and im­ple­mented by Har­ris Salleh’s Ber­jaya gov­ern­ment in 1980, along with the dec­la­ra­tion of sa­cred Kaa­matan Fes­ti­val as “Pesta Rakyat”, KCA led by its Pres­i­dent and Cen­tral Com­mit­tee Mem­bers came to the res­cue to do away with the un­just lump­ing and la­belling of the Kadazan­dusuns along with na­tives of Sabah as “Pribu­mis” and also sal­vaged the Kaa­matan Fes­ti­val from be­ing dis­re­spect­fully de­graded as “Pesta Rakyat”.

Such was the sce­nario when the KCA Coun­cil of El­ders in con­sul­ta­tion with the se­nior Bobo­lians brought about the ne­ces­sity to fill the void in the of­fice of the Huguan Siou.

Sev­eral names were men­tioned and pro­posed in­clud­ing Datuk Hj Ab­dul Ghani Gi­long, Datuk James Ongk­ili but they all de­clined for rea­sons that has not been shared openly till this very day.

On De­cem­ber 18, 1983 at Kg Bangka­hak in Kota Be­lud, vi­sion­ary Tan­ta­gas (Bobo­lian) Chief, Bol­ungk­i­tas Am­man Sirom Sim­buna wel­comed and de­clared Datuk Joseph Pairin Kitin­gan as their Tin­dal Com­mu­nity Huguan Siou and for the Kadazan­dusun Com­mu­nity as a whole too and ar­ranged for Pairin to walk on seven gongs into the venue of the Tin­dal Cul­tural Her­itage Preser­va­tion and Ex­hi­bi­tion Fes­ti­val. It was not for Pairin then to even com­ment, let alone de­cline the vol­un­tary dec­la­ra­tion by the Kota Be­lud com­mu­nity.

Then on March 4, 1984 in con­junc­tion with the KCA’s 3rd Del­e­gates Con­fer­ence, Bol­ungk­i­tas Am­man Sirom Sim­buna as a del­e­gate un­equiv­o­cally pro­posed that Datuk Joseph Pairin Kitin­gan be of­fi­cially made and be de­clared as the new Huguan Siou of the Kadazan­dusuns. With­out any ob­jec­tion from the floor and thus with­out any cause and ne­ces­sity for de­bate, the del­e­gates unan­i­mously re­solved to rec­og­nize and de­clare Datuk Joseph Pairin Kitin­gan as the new State and Na­tional Huguan Siou of the Kadazan­dusuns, the of­fi­cial cer­e­mo­nial in­stal­la­tion of which shall be done as soon as pos­si­ble based on the ad­vice of the Coun­cil of El­ders and in con­sul­ta­tion with the lead­ing Bobo­lians of the times.

Clearly, and in his very own ad­mis­sion, it was never Pairin’s dream or wish to be the Huguan Siou, but he was clearly caught in a sit­u­a­tion where and when the Kadazan­dusuns, his very own com­mu­nity were sin­cerely seek­ing for a new Huguan Siou to fill the void sud­denly left by the un­timely death of Huguan Siou YAB Tun Fuad Stephens, and where other ear­lier pro­posed nom­i­nees be­fore this have de­clined the of­fer, Pairin in a way had to sal­vage the sit­u­a­tion.

Again as in the case of the Tin­dal Com­mu­nity declar­ing him as the Huguan Siou, Datuk Joseph Pairin Kitin­gan had no other choice but to re­spect that sin­cere wish of the Kadazan­dusuns through the 3rd KCA Del­e­gates Con­fer­ence (1984) unan­i­mous en­dorse­ment of him to be their Huguan Siou dur­ing such time of dire need for a Kadazan­dusun Huguan Siou.

In real sense, it is in­deed great sac­ri­fice for Pairin to ac­cept the re­spon­si­bil­ity of the un­writ­ten mis­sion, objects and func­tions of a Huguan Siou at that time, let alone the yet un­fath­omable ex­pec­ta­tions of the whole Kadazan­dusun com­mu­nity there from and as such we should be grate­ful for Pairin for bravely ac­cept­ing the Huguan Siou lead­er­ship for us as 1Kadazan­dusuns.

On June 26, 1984, the Tam­bunanites made Pairin their “Mogkok­ounan” the equiv­a­lent ti­tle for “Huguan Siou” in the Pe­nam­pang Kadazan­dusun Tan­gaa’ di­alect.

On the views that the Huguan Siou should not be a politi­cian, his­tory re­veals that both Tun Fuad Stephens and Datuk Joseph Pairin Kitin­gan were both al­ready po­lit­i­cal lead­ers and lead­ing their re­spec­tive po­lit­i­cal par­ties when the Kadazan­dusun Com­mu­nity through cul­tural or­ga­ni­za­tions of­fered and de­clared them as Huguan Siou.

On July 1, 1984 at the So­ci­ety of Kadazan house on Mound Moungk­oubau Kg Tuavon Pe­nam­pang, the foun­da­tional home ground of the So­ci­ety of Kadazan Pe­nam­pang, North Bor­neo (founded and reg­is­tered on April 7, 1953), Datuk Joseph Pairin Kitin­gan was of­fi­cially and cer­e­mo­ni­ously in­stalled as the State and Na­tional Huguan Siou of the Kadazan­dusuns wit­nessed by Kadazan­dusun multi-eth­nic lead­ers/rep­re­sen­ta­tives from all over Sabah.

Lest we for­get, it was at this same place and venue that Huguan Siou Tun Fuad Stephens was also in­stalled as the State and Na­tional Huguan Siou of the Kadazan­dusuns on April 6, 1964.

Again as in the case of the Tin­dal Com­mu­nity declar­ing him as the Huguan Siou, Datuk Joseph Pairin Kitin­gan had no other choice but to re­spect that sin­cere wish of the Kadazan­dusuns through the 3rd KCA Del­e­gates Con­fer­ence (1984) unan­i­mous en­dorse­ment of him to be their Huguan Siou dur­ing such time of dire need for a Kadazan­dusun Huguan Siou.

In real sense, it is in­deed great sac­ri­fice for Pairin to ac­cept the re­spon­si­bil­ity of the un­writ­ten mis­sion, objects and func­tions of a Huguan Siou at that time, let alone the yet un­fath­omable ex­pec­ta­tions of the whole Kadazan­dusun com­mu­nity there from and as such we should be grate­ful for Pairin for bravely ac­cept­ing the Huguan Siou lead­er­ship for us as 1Kadazan­dusuns.

On the views that the Huguan Siou should not be a politi­cian, his­tory re­veals that both Tun Fuad Stephens and Datuk Joseph Pairin Kitin­gan were both al­ready po­lit­i­cal lead­ers and lead­ing their re­spec­tive po­lit­i­cal par­ties when the Kadazan­dusun Com­mu­nity made them their Huguan Siou.

On the need of Huguan Siou in the cur­rent times is clearly an­swered by the re­cent unan­i­mous de­fence and sup­port by the KDCA Cul­tural Her­itage and Bobo­lian Com­mit­tee, for the full recog­ni­tion with pro­vi­sion of the Huguan Siou In­sti­tu­tion by the gov­ern­ments of the day.

Like­wise, the KDCA Group Mem­bers meet­ing on June 29, 2018, com­pris­ing rep­re­sen­ta­tives from var­i­ous reg­is­tered Kadazan­dusun Eth­nic As­so­ci­a­tions also strongly ex­pressed their un­di­vided sup­port to the cur­rent Huguan Siou Tan Sri Jospeh Pairin Datuk Kitin­gan and unan­i­mously de­fended the Huguan Siou Legacy and fully sup­port­ing united ef­forts led by KDCA to pur­sue the full recog­ni­tion with pro­vi­sion of the Huguan Siou In­sti­tu­tion of the Kadazan­dusuns by both the Fed­eral and State Gov­ern­ment.

Among those present at the KDCA Group Mem­bers Meet­ing were rep­re­sen­ta­tives from:

1. Per­sat­uan To­bilung Ber­satu Sabah (TOBISA)

2. Per­sat­uan Suang Lo­tud Sabah (LO­TUD)

3. Per­sat­uan Run­gus Ber­satu Sabah (PRBS)

4. Per­sat­uan Ke­bu­dayaan dan Ke­ba­jkan Et­nik Kui­jau, Gana dan Nabai Sabah (KGNS)

5. Per­sat­uan Et­nik Kaum Son­so­gon Sabah (PESOSA)

6. Per­sat­uan Suku Kaum Ti­na­gas Zon Utara Sabah

7. Per­sat­uan Sino Kadazan Dusun Mu­rut Sabah

The KDCA Joint Un­at­tached Mem­bers Co­or­di­nat­ing Com­mit­tee Meet­ing Chaired by the KDCA Sec­re­tary Gen­eral, Datuk Ir John An­thony held on June 30th, 2018 at the KDCA Cul­tural Vil­lage Open Hall, also dis­cussed unan­i­mously and sup­ported a mo­tion from the floor that the Huguan Siou In­sti­tu­tion must be pre­served, re­spected and de­fended at all times by the Kadazan­dusun Com­mu­nity ir­re­spec­tive of their creed and po­lit­i­cal af­fil­i­a­tions. The KDCA Un­at­tached Mem­bers meet­ing also urged that KDCA, be­ing the cur­rent cus­to­dian of the Huguan Siou Legacy must lead the Kadazan­dusun Com­mu­nity to pur­sue the full recog­ni­tion with pro­vi­sion of the Huguan Siou In­sti­tu­tion of the Kadazan­dusuns by both the Fed­eral and State Gov­ern­ments.

Tam­bunanites in­stalled Pairin as their Huguan Siou (Mogkok­ounan) on June 26, 1984.

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