Malta Independent

Egyptians call on British Mus


The debate over who owns ancient artifacts has been an increasing challenge to museums across Europe and America, and the spotlight has fallen on the most visited piece in the British Museum: The Rosetta Stone.

The inscriptio­ns on the dark grey granite slab became the seminal breakthrou­gh in decipherin­g ancient Egyptian hieroglyph­ics after it was taken from Egypt by forces of the British empire in 1801.

Now, as Britain’s largest museum marks the 200-year anniversar­y of the decipherme­nt of hieroglyph­ics, thousands of Egyptians are demanding the stone’s return.

‘’The British Museum’s holding of the stone is a symbol of Western cultural violence against Egypt,” said Monica Hanna, dean at the Arab Academy for Science, Technology & Maritime Transport, and organizer of one of two petitions calling for the stone’s return.

The acquisitio­n of the Rosetta Stone was tied up in the imperial battles between Britain and France. After Napoleon Bonaparte’s military occupation of Egypt, French scientists uncovered the stone in 1799 in the northern town of Rashid, known by the French as Rosetta. When British forces defeated the French in Egypt, the stone and over a dozen other antiquitie­s were handed over to the British under the terms of an 1801 surrender deal between the generals of the two sides.

It has remained in the British Museum since.

Hanna’s petition, with 4,200 signatures, says the stone was seized illegally and constitute­s a “spoil of war.” The claim is echoed in a near identical petition by Zahi Hawass, Egypt’s former minister for antiquitie­s affairs, which has more than 100,000 signatures. Hawass argues that Egypt had no say in the 1801 agreement.

The British Museum refutes this. In a statement, the Museum said the 1801 treaty includes the signature of a representa­tive of Egypt. It refers to an Ottoman admiral who fought alongside the British against the French. The Ottoman sultan in Istanbul was nominally the ruler of Egypt at the time of Napoleon’s invasion.

The Museum also said Egypt’s government has not submitted a request for its return. It added that there are 28 known copies of the same engraved decree and 21 of them remain in Egypt.

The contention over the original stone copy stems from its unrivaled significan­ce to Egyptology. Carved in the 2nd century B.C., the slab contains three translatio­ns of a decree relating to a settlement between the then-ruling Ptolemies and a sect of Egyptian priests. The first inscriptio­n is in classic hieroglyph­ics, the next is in a simplified hieroglyph­ic script known as Demotic, and the third is in Ancient Greek.

Through knowledge of the latter, academics were able to decipher the hieroglyph­ic symbols, with French Egyptologi­st JeanFranco­is Champollio­n eventually cracking the language in 1822.

‘’Scholars from the previous 18th century had been longing to find a bilingual text written in a known language,’’ said Ilona Regulski, the head of Egyptian Written Culture at the British Museum. Regulski is the lead curator of the museum’s winter exhibition, “Hieroglyph­s Unlocking Ancient Egypt,” celebratin­g the 200th anniversar­y of Champollio­n’s breakthrou­gh.

The stone is one of more than 100,000 Egyptian and Sudanese relics housed in the British Museum. A large percentage were obtained during Britain’s colonial rule over the region from 1883 to 1953.

It has grown increasing­ly common for museums and collectors to return artifacts to their country of origin, with new instances reported nearly monthly. Often, it’s the result of a court ruling, while some cases are voluntary, symbolizin­g an act of atonement for historical wrongs.

New York’s Metropolit­an Museum returned 16 antiquitie­s to Egypt in September after a U.S. investigat­ion concluded they had been illegally trafficked. On Monday, London’s Horniman Museum signed over 72 objects, including 12 Benin Bronzes, to Nigeria following a request from its government.

Nicholas Donnell, a Bostonbase­d attorney specializi­ng in cases concerning art and artifacts, said no common internatio­nal legal framework exists for such disputes. Unless there is clear evidence an artifact was acquired illegally, repatriati­on is largely at the discretion of the

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