Today in History
1542 – Pope Paul III creates Roman Inquisition to fight Protestantism. 1820 – Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted announces his discovery that an electrical current creates a magnetic field.
1861 – Confederate army defeats Union troops at Battle of Bull Run in Virginia, at start of American Civil War. 1873 – Jesse James and his gang pull off the first train robbery in the US, taking US$3000 from the Rock Island
Express in Adair, Iowa.
1925 – Ra¯tana movement formally established as a church; in Dayton, Tennessee, John T Scopes convicted of violating state law for teaching evolution. The conviction is later overturned.
1959 – US District Court judge in New York City rules that DH Lawrence’s
Lady Chatterley’s Lover, right, is not pornographic.
1960 – Sirimavo Bandaranaike of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) becomes the world’s first elected female prime minister.
1969 – US Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin ’’Buzz’’ Aldrin Jr blast off from the Moon.
1983 – World’s lowest-ever natural temperature recorded -89.2 °C at Soviet Vostok Station, Antarctica.
1994 – Dissident author Alexander Solzhenitsyn returns to Moscow 20 years after his expulsion.
2000 – Bolivian drug trafficker Roberto Suarez Gomez, the selfproclaimed ‘‘King of Cocaine’’, dies at 68. He is believed to have been the model for the movie Scarface.
2008 – Ex-bosnian Serb leader
Radovan Karadzic is arrested in Belgrade by Serbian security forces.
Baron Paul Julius von Reuter, Germanborn news service pioneer (1816-99); Ernest Hemingway, US writer (1899-1961); Ken Starr, US lawyer who investigated Bill Clinton (1946-); Yusuf Islam (Cat Stevens), UK musician (1948-); Robin Williams, US actor (1951-2014); Jeff Fatt, Australian musician/actor, The Wiggles (1953-); Ross Kemp, UK actor (1964-); Duncan Sarkies, NZ writer (1970-).