The Punch - - HEALTH+ -

the risk of de­vel­op­ing gall­stones and so also is (4) The pres­ence of high lev­els of choles­terol in the blood. Other fac­tors are heavy cig­a­rette smok­ing and al­co­hol drink­ing which are male-dom­i­nated recre­ational ac­tiv­i­ties.

Women who have had mul­ti­ple preg­nan­cies or used con­tra­cep­tive pills for a long time are at a higher risk for de­vel­op­ing this con­di­tion. This arises from the fact that preg­nancy and con­tra­cep­tive pills can slow down gall­blad­der ac­tiv­ity. Gall­stones vary very much in size; some peo­ple would have one or two large stones while oth­ers can form dozens of small ones.

As said ear­lier, the most com­mon fea­ture of this con­di­tion is pain in the right up­per ab­domen. Some­times, such pain ex­tends to the area just un­der the breast bone thereby con­fus­ing it some­times for a pep­tic ul­cer. The pain is of­ten se­vere, and could ra­di­ate to the chest, back or area be­tween the two shoul­der blades. Such symp­toms can start sud­denly and is then called a bil­iary colic. Such pain is of­ten trig­gered by eat­ing a fat-rich meal such a fried plan­tain or fried eggs. When these are eaten to­gether, the sit­u­a­tion is dou­bly worse. This is of­ten seen in the mid­dle of the night af­ter a rel­e­vant din­ner. Other symp­toms in­clude nau­sea, in­di­ges­tion, vom­it­ing and the pas­sage of pale-coloured stools.

The di­ag­no­sis of this con­di­tion is of­ten con­firmed by an ab­dom­i­nal ul­tra­sound scan. If they are sus­pected of block­ing the ducts, an en­do­scopic ret­ro­grade cholan­giopan­cre­atog­ra­phy (ERCP) is re­quested. This de­vice is a scope passed through the open mouth, down the oe­soph­a­gus into the stom­ach and duo­de­num. It has a light source and a cam­era at its tip with which the doc­tor views all those or­gans and takes pic­tures. Gall­stones seen dur­ing this pro­ce­dure can be re­moved through the scope.

Treat­ment of­fered de­pends on the fre­quency of the symp­toms and their sever­ity. Nearly one-third of all peo­ple who have ex­pe­ri­enced one bil­iary colic may not suf­fer an­other one. In gen­eral, be­cause the ma­jor­ity of peo­ple have mild symp­toms, most can be treated with pain re­liev­ers and gen­er­ous fluid in­take alone. An­tibi­otics may also be given de­pend­ing on the per­ceived need. In the more se­vere cases, surgery is the treat­ment of choice. This can be an open tech­nique for re­mov­ing the gall­blad­der or a la­paro­scopic method. Some­times, the gall­blad­der is left in place while the stones are shat­tered us­ing sound waves. sure to bring you dis­grace out­side of mar­riage and tales like that. Per­haps, you are a vic­tim of fe­male gen­i­tal mutilation. What­ever is the fac­tor re­spon­si­ble for your cur­rent con­di­tion, be as­sured that it is not nor­mal. Please see a doc­tor as soon as you are able and have a proper ex­am­i­na­tion done so that you can get the rel­e­vant ad­vice.

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