Times of Oman

ASTRONOMIC­AL ANNIVERSAR­Y: JOHANNES KEPLER’S LEGACY

Astronomer Johannes Kepler was born 450 years ago, on December 27. His discoverie­s have shaped our understand­ing of the planets and the way satellites orbit Earth.

-

YOU MAY never have heard of Johannes Kepler, and that’s no problem, but his legacy lives on all around us. If Kepler were alive today, he would be celebratin­g his 450th birthday. He was one of those early thinkers who revolution­ised science and the way we see and understand the universe — the natural world and life itself.

Kepler was an astronomer and mathematic­ian. He stands next to giants like Copernicus, Galileo and Newton. And today’s science stands on their shoulders.

A short biography

Kepler was born on December 27, 1571, near what is now Stuttgart in southern Germany.

He is best known for his discovery of three laws of planetary motion. Presented between 1609 and 1619, those laws describe how the planets orbit around our sun.

From small beginnings...

Johannes Kepler parents were poor and he was often unwell. But it quickly became clear at school that young Johannes was bright. He was awarded a scholarshi­p to the University of Tübingen, where he first studied the ideas of astronomer Copernicus. Centuries later, Kepler had stars and spacecraft named after him.

If Kepler were alive today, he would be celebratin­g his 450th birthday. He was one of those early thinkers who revolution­ized science and the way we see and understand the universe — the natural world and life itself.

Kepler’s laws

It all started with Kepler’s discovery that Mars orbited the sun in an ellipse — an oval shape.

That first discovery led Kepler to then realise that all the planets moved at different speeds around the sun in an elliptical orbit.

This improved on an earlier heliocentr­ic theory, proposed by Polish mathematic­ian and astronomer

Nicolaus Copernicus, who had theorized that the planets orbited the sun in a circular movement.

Kepler’s laws of planetary motion were essential for Isaac Newton’s law of gravitatio­n in the 1680s. Newton’s law says that all objects — or the particles that make up objects — attract each other with a gravitatio­nal force. And that explains why planets orbit around the sun in the first place.

His laws in action

Kepler’s laws are helpful when it comes to our understand­ing of the movement of natural objects. They help us understand stellar systems and extrasolar planets, which are outside our solar system.

Internet from space

They are also used in the design of rocket trajectori­es and how we have satellites orbit our planet today. Satellites can be farther or nearer to us, depending on where they are on their orbit — that’s the nature of an elliptical orbit.

And that’s important to know when, for instance, you are planning when and where you can take images of Earth — or when it’s most efficient to send data from one place on Earth to another via satellite.

When science and religion coexisted

Kepler was born into a time when the scientific community worked within the confines of religion and the church. It wasn’t always an easy match between science and religion, and many early philosophe­rs and scientists paid the price.

In Kepler’s case, religion was a positive influence. He avoided calling his discoverie­s about planetary motion “laws” and instead considered them “celestial harmonies” that reflected God’s design for the universe.

All schooling at the time was controlled by church institutio­ns, both Roman Catholic and Protestant. Kepler was raised in a Lutheran family. He received a scholarshi­p through the church and that started him on his scientific journey.

He attended a seminary at the University of Tübingen from 1589. People tended to graduate from these schools to become teachers or church ministers — Kepler had initially planned to become a theologian.

That was until he studied under his mentor, Michael Mästlin.

Mästlin introduced Kepler to Copernicus’ ideas, which went on to play a central role in Kepler’s own discoverie­s.

Kepler said God had led him to study the stars. He even believed that God was symbolized by the sun — a force around which the planets revolved. It’s was an idea which Newton later revised as described above.

What Kepler’s story shows us, however, is how science evolves. It is in constant flux and movement, discovery and rediscover­y. It reminds us how scientific thought exists in the context of its times and the lives of its thinkers.

Kepler said God had led him to study the stars. He even believed that God was symbolized by the sun — a force around which the planets revolved. It’s was an idea which Newton later revised as described above. What Kepler’s story shows us, however, is how science evolves. It is in constant flux and movement, discovery and rediscover­y.

 ?? ??
 ?? ??
 ?? ??
 ?? ??

Newspapers in English

Newspapers from Oman