Pro­tect­ing Na­tional Pol­icy

A Na­tional Se­cu­rity Coun­cil can help fight ter­ror­ism and ex­trem­ism and other in­ter­nal and ex­ter­nal threats.

Southasia - - COVER STORY - By Taj Haider

There is a his­tor­i­cal back­ground of the role of the armed forces in the na­tional af­fairs of Turkey. This role is di­a­met­ri­cally op­po­site to the role that Pak­istan’s armed forces have played. Af­ter the de­feat of the cen­tral pow­ers (which in­cluded the Ot­toman Em­pire) in the First World War at the hands of the Al­lies and the Arab Re­volt against the Ot­tomans, the Ot­toman Em­pire was dis­mem­bered into sev­eral king­doms spon­sored by the Al­lies. The Al­lies wanted to oc­cupy the Turk­ish main­land but the de­feated Ot­toman armies re­or­ga­nized them­selves un­der the lead­er­ship of Ghazi Mustafa Ke­mal and suc­cess­fully re­pealed the com­bined of­fen­sive of the Bri­tish, French, Aus­tralian and New Zealand armies at Gal­lipoli.

The Ot­toman Caliphate, af­ter its de­feat in the First World War, fol­lowed a pol­icy of ap­pease­ment of the Al­lied pow­ers. Ma­jor cities in Turkey like Con­stantino­ple and Izmir were oc­cu­pied by the Al­lied pow­ers in 1919. It was at that time that Ghazi Mustafa Ke­mal es­tab­lished the ‘Turk­ish Na­tional Move­ment’ and started the Turk­ish War of In­de­pen­dence aimed at restor­ing Turk­ish sovereignty on the Turk­ish main­land. Forces un­der the com­mand of Ghazi Mustafa Ke­mal crossed the Bosporus Strait and also re­cov­ered lost ter­ri­tory on the Euro­pean side.

He abol­ished the pro-Western Caliphate, de­clared Turkey a sec­u­lar repub­lic, held elec­tions in which women had a right to vote, passed a con­sti­tu­tion and re­built Turkey on mod­ern lines. The Turk­ish Armed Forces

For­mer Prime Min­is­ters of Pak­istan: Huseyn Sha­heed Suhrawardy Zul­fikar Ali Bhutto

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