Maritime dispute between China and Japan in East China Sea
In this anarchic world, state always gives priority to its national interests. National interests which is comprise of many things but security, sovereignty and economic gains are basic components and state use every possible mean to maximize its interests. China and Japan are the growing economies of world. The relationship between China and Japan is interesting relation in present world politics like one the one hand they have cultural similarities, according to report from China’s Ministry of Commerce in 2013, the value of trade and goods between China and Japan hit $312 billion and on the other hand they cannot remove their historical problems, Issue of East China Sea is a bone of contention between China and Japan. , Evidence of this collided with Japan Coast Guard ships in East China Sea, this event sparked the diplomatic issue between two countries. Territory whether land or sea territory is important for state in fact is integral part of state, as it is the source of economy and power. Maritime territorial disputes are different from land-based disputes because disputes are also about the maritime jurisdiction to settle.
Maritime dispute in East China Sea is on Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands, the islands islands and three barren rocks, and total area is about 6.3 km in East China Sea. The Senkaku/Diaoyu located midway between China and Japan. These islands are strategically and economically very important. This disputed area is full of natural resources including sand and gravel, shell and carbonate sand, heavymetal sand, phosphorus, precious coral, rock salt, as well as varying amounts of titanium, gold, platinum, zircon, and other heavy metals , but this paper focus on hydrocarbon resources and oil. In 1968, a report of the UN Economic Commission for Asia and Far East suggested that there are large amount of hydrocarbon resources in these islands. The US Energy Information Administration has estimated that there could be 60-100 million barrels of oil and 1.2 cubic feet of natural gas in this area. Chinese and Japanese oil companies are working in these areas
that create problem. Japan controlled these islands since 1895. But after World War II US administration took hold of this maritime area till 1972. In 1971 Ryukyu Reversion Agreement signed between US and Japan and US hand over Senkaku/Diaoyu islands to Japan. After that issue erupted and China asserted her claim on these islands.
In 1972 the dispute started between mainland China and Japan, before that it was between Republic of China and Japan. In 1972 Japan send its naval forces with the name of Maritime Security this area. In 1978 both countries signed Treaty of Peace and Friendship but the maritime issue remain there. In 1990s issue again erupted between the when Japanese forces not allowed ROC athletes to placed Olympics torch on island and China entered and claiming that Japan has no right over there. In 1992, Chinese government passes law part of China. In response Japanese Foreign Ministry claim that Senkaku islands are part Japan and refuse to accept law which was passed by Chinese government. In 2012 issues on this issue again erupted when governor of Tokyo wanted to buy three islands but Japanese central government buys these islands.
Now issue is both countries claim on these islands and have strong nationalist feelings related to these islands. But another issue is both countries are interdependent on each other and cannot go for war and if they try to solve this issue by violent means it not only affect both counties solution of this problem is to solve it through cooperation; they cooperate Japan both countries heavily dependent taken by both countries and they signed Fisheries Agreement and this agreement was completed in 2000 and enter into force in June 2000 (before that three agreement were also signed during 1955-1977, but they were not very successful). An important feature of this agreement is that it created Provisional Measure Zone (PMZ) in East China Sea. China and Japan both countries heavily initiated was taken by both countries and they signed Fisheries Agreement and this agreement was completed in 2000 and enter into force in June 2000 (before that three agreement were also signed during 1955-1977, but they were not very successful). An important feature of this agreement is that it created Provisional Measure Zone (PMZ) in East China Sea. They also cooperate in marine research activities like In 2001, both states exchange verbal notes for the marine survey in disputed islands, but after that no agreement signed in Navy presence will increase in that area and that was not acceptable for Japan, decrease their issue
China and Japan should seek political solution of this dispute because this Sea is full of natural resource and towards peaceful solution of this issue. Regional Fisheries Regime can be established for cooperation.
Both countries can sign CBMs start Joint Research Program, this will help exploration of resources in that energy it the most important need for the development of both countries. This