Mar­itime dis­pute be­tween China and Ja­pan in East China Sea

The Diplomatic Insight - - Con­tents - Maria Ayub

In this an­ar­chic world, state al­ways gives pri­or­ity to its na­tional in­ter­ests. Na­tional in­ter­ests which is com­prise of many things but se­cu­rity, sovereignty and eco­nomic gains are ba­sic com­po­nents and state use ev­ery pos­si­ble mean to max­i­mize its in­ter­ests. China and Ja­pan are the grow­ing economies of world. The re­la­tion­ship be­tween China and Ja­pan is in­ter­est­ing re­la­tion in present world pol­i­tics like one the one hand they have cul­tural sim­i­lar­i­ties, ac­cord­ing to re­port from China’s Min­istry of Com­merce in 2013, the value of trade and goods be­tween China and Ja­pan hit $312 bil­lion and on the other hand they can­not re­move their his­tor­i­cal prob­lems, Is­sue of East China Sea is a bone of con­tention be­tween China and Ja­pan. , Ev­i­dence of this col­lided with Ja­pan Coast Guard ships in East China Sea, this event sparked the diplo­matic is­sue be­tween two coun­tries. Ter­ri­tory whether land or sea ter­ri­tory is im­por­tant for state in fact is in­te­gral part of state, as it is the source of econ­omy and power. Mar­itime ter­ri­to­rial dis­putes are dif­fer­ent from land-based dis­putes be­cause dis­putes are also about the mar­itime ju­ris­dic­tion to set­tle.

Mar­itime dis­pute in East China Sea is on Senkaku/Diaoyu Is­lands, the is­lands is­lands and three bar­ren rocks, and to­tal area is about 6.3 km in East China Sea. The Senkaku/Diaoyu lo­cated mid­way be­tween China and Ja­pan. Th­ese is­lands are strate­gi­cally and eco­nom­i­cally very im­por­tant. This dis­puted area is full of nat­u­ral re­sources in­clud­ing sand and gravel, shell and car­bon­ate sand, heavymetal sand, phos­pho­rus, pre­cious coral, rock salt, as well as vary­ing amounts of ti­ta­nium, gold, plat­inum, zir­con, and other heavy met­als , but this pa­per fo­cus on hy­dro­car­bon re­sources and oil. In 1968, a re­port of the UN Eco­nomic Com­mis­sion for Asia and Far East sug­gested that there are large amount of hy­dro­car­bon re­sources in th­ese is­lands. The US En­ergy In­for­ma­tion Ad­min­is­tra­tion has es­ti­mated that there could be 60-100 mil­lion bar­rels of oil and 1.2 cu­bic feet of nat­u­ral gas in this area. Chi­nese and Ja­panese oil com­pa­nies are work­ing in th­ese ar­eas

that cre­ate prob­lem. Ja­pan con­trolled th­ese is­lands since 1895. But af­ter World War II US ad­min­is­tra­tion took hold of this mar­itime area till 1972. In 1971 Ryukyu Rev­er­sion Agree­ment signed be­tween US and Ja­pan and US hand over Senkaku/Diaoyu is­lands to Ja­pan. Af­ter that is­sue erupted and China as­serted her claim on th­ese is­lands.

In 1972 the dis­pute started be­tween main­land China and Ja­pan, be­fore that it was be­tween Repub­lic of China and Ja­pan. In 1972 Ja­pan send its naval forces with the name of Mar­itime Se­cu­rity this area. In 1978 both coun­tries signed Treaty of Peace and Friend­ship but the mar­itime is­sue re­main there. In 1990s is­sue again erupted be­tween the when Ja­panese forces not al­lowed ROC ath­letes to placed Olympics torch on is­land and China en­tered and claim­ing that Ja­pan has no right over there. In 1992, Chi­nese gov­ern­ment passes law part of China. In re­sponse Ja­panese For­eign Min­istry claim that Senkaku is­lands are part Ja­pan and refuse to ac­cept law which was passed by Chi­nese gov­ern­ment. In 2012 is­sues on this is­sue again erupted when gov­er­nor of Tokyo wanted to buy three is­lands but Ja­panese cen­tral gov­ern­ment buys th­ese is­lands.

Now is­sue is both coun­tries claim on th­ese is­lands and have strong na­tion­al­ist feel­ings re­lated to th­ese is­lands. But an­other is­sue is both coun­tries are in­ter­de­pen­dent on each other and can­not go for war and if they try to solve this is­sue by vi­o­lent means it not only af­fect both coun­ties so­lu­tion of this prob­lem is to solve it through co­op­er­a­tion; they co­op­er­ate Ja­pan both coun­tries heav­ily de­pen­dent taken by both coun­tries and they signed Fish­eries Agree­ment and this agree­ment was com­pleted in 2000 and en­ter into force in June 2000 (be­fore that three agree­ment were also signed dur­ing 1955-1977, but they were not very suc­cess­ful). An im­por­tant fea­ture of this agree­ment is that it cre­ated Pro­vi­sional Mea­sure Zone (PMZ) in East China Sea. China and Ja­pan both coun­tries heav­ily ini­ti­ated was taken by both coun­tries and they signed Fish­eries Agree­ment and this agree­ment was com­pleted in 2000 and en­ter into force in June 2000 (be­fore that three agree­ment were also signed dur­ing 1955-1977, but they were not very suc­cess­ful). An im­por­tant fea­ture of this agree­ment is that it cre­ated Pro­vi­sional Mea­sure Zone (PMZ) in East China Sea. They also co­op­er­ate in ma­rine re­search ac­tiv­i­ties like In 2001, both states ex­change ver­bal notes for the ma­rine sur­vey in dis­puted is­lands, but af­ter that no agree­ment signed in Navy pres­ence will in­crease in that area and that was not ac­cept­able for Ja­pan, de­crease their is­sue

China and Ja­pan should seek po­lit­i­cal so­lu­tion of this dis­pute be­cause this Sea is full of nat­u­ral re­source and to­wards peace­ful so­lu­tion of this is­sue. Re­gional Fish­eries Regime can be es­tab­lished for co­op­er­a­tion.

Both coun­tries can sign CBMs start Joint Re­search Pro­gram, this will help ex­plo­ration of re­sources in that en­ergy it the most im­por­tant need for the de­vel­op­ment of both coun­tries. This

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