On October 27, 1991, Turkmenistan became independent state, and since then this date is marked as the Independence Day.On December 12, 1995, Turkmenistan was recognized as a permanently neutral state by the resolution of the UN General Assembly with the unanimous support of all 185 member states (at that time). Turkmenistan is a democratic, legal, secular state. The form of government is a presidential republic. The political structure of the Turkmen state is formed in accordance with the Constitution of Turkmenistan, adopted on May 18, 1992 (the new version on September 26, 2008). The Constitution of Turkmenistan is the Basic law of the state. According to that law, Turkmenistan’s state mechanism is based on the principle of separation of powers into legislative, executive and judicial branches which act independently and balance each and provisions have direct force. Laws and other legal acts that contradict the Constitution have no legal force. People are the holder of sovereignty and the only source of power of Turkmenistan. The state guarantees the freedom of religions and confessions and their equality before the law. Religious organizations are apart from the state and can’t interfere with the state affairs and execute state functions. The state education system is formed separately from the religious organizations and has a secular nature. The President of Turkmenistan is the at the head of the state and executive power. The President of Turkmenistan chairs the Cabinet of Ministers – the Government of Turkmenistan. The President of Turkmenistan is the guarantor of the state independence and neutral status of Turkmenistan, its territorial integrity, the observance of the Constitution and the performance of international obligations. The President of Turkmenistan is the Supreme Commander in Chief of Turkmenistan. Legislative power is exercised by the supreme representative body – the Mejlis (Parliament) of Turkmenistan, which consists of 125 deputies, elected in accordance with the territorial election districts for the term of 5 years. The elections of the deputies of the Mejlis are carried out by the citizens of Turkmenistan on the basis of nationwide, equal and direct electoral law with secret voting and on alternative bases. Judicial power in Turkmenistan belongs to the courts. Judicial power is meant to defend the rights and freedoms of citizens, state and public interests which are protected by the law. The territory of Turkmenistan is equal to 491, 21 thousand km2. Its territory extends for 1100 km from the west to the east and extends for 650 km from north to south. The population of Turkmenistan is more than 6.2 million people. Turkmenistan is a multinational state. There are more than 100 nations and ethnic groups living in the country.
The Turkmen language is the state language. All citizens of Turkmenistan are granted the right to use the native language. The educational institutions of Turkmenistan ensure learning of three languages – Turkmen, English and Russian.
National currency is manat, introduced into circulation on November 1, 1993. At present time the ratio of the national currency against the freely convertible currency amounts to: 3,50 manats = 1 US dollar.
ADMINISTRATIVE TERRITORIAL STRUCTURE
Capital city of Turkmenistan – Ashgabat, which is the administrativeterritorial unit possessing the right of the province (velayat). Ashgabat includes 6 districts (etraps): Archabil district, Bagtiyarlyk district, Kopetdag district, Berkararlik district, Abadan district and Rukhaba district. The total area makes up 47 thousand 26 hectares. Turkmenistan is divided into 5 provinces – Ahal, Balkan, Dashoguz, Lebap and Mary. Each province is divided into districts. There are 52 districts in Turkmenistan, 25 cities, including 15 cities with the right of district, 78 villages and 560 rural councils (rural municipal units) and 1927 rural settlements.
REMARKABLE DATES OF TURKMENISTAN
The major state and national holidays of the state: New Year – January 1, the Day of the State Flag of Turkmenistan – February 19, International Women’s Day – March 8, National Spring – May 9, the Day of the Constitution and the Day of Revival, Unity and Poetry of Magtymguly – May 18, Turkmenistan’s Independence Day - Turkmenistan – the Day of Neutrality – December 12. The certain dates of annually marked holidays Eid al-Adha with the decrees of the President of Turkmenistan. Memorial days: National Commemoration Day – October 6.