Col­lect­ing and eval­u­at­ing plants with high yield and in­come potentials

Me­moirs of an Agri Re­searcher

Agriculture - - Contents - BY PABLITO P. PAMPLONA, PH.D.

DUR­ING THE FIRST WEEK of April 2018, I vis­ited our fruit farms and found out that the trees of durian, man­gos­teen, rambu­tan, longkong, duko, pum­melo, and other fruits were flow­er­ing pro­fusely. I also noted sim­i­lar pro­fuse flow­er­ing in other fruit farms in South Cota­bato, Davao City, Davao del Norte, Agu­san, and Bukid­non. This means that this year 2018 there will be abun­dant fruits, a de­par­ture from the low fruit­ing dur­ing the last two years brought about by the oc­cur­rence of El Niño in 2016 and La Niña in 2017. This year is a great year for fruit grow­ers in Min­danao and I am happy and in­spired by this de­vel­op­ment! I took a part in the ex­pan­sion of the fruit in­dus­try since the 1980s, hav­ing made in­puts avail­able to the farm­ers through our fruit nurs­ery. I was also ac­tively in­volved in farm­ers’ train­ing for high pro­duc­tiv­ity. Many of these ac­tiv­i­ties were car­ried out un­der the USAID and PCARRD pro­gram.

We are invit­ing our friends from Lu­zon and Visayas to come to fruit fes­ti­vals from Au­gust to Oc­to­ber in var­i­ous places of Min­danao to en­joy the bounty. Ex­porters are en­cour­aged to pre­pare their plat­forms and re­sources to ex­port fruits to China, Sin­ga­pore, Ja­pan, and other coun­tries.


Flow­er­ing of fruit trees and plant­ing rice or corn have a com­mon time to har­vest. The pe­riod of wait­ing to har­vest comes in four to six months af­ter plant­ing rice and flow­er­ing of fruit trees. The dif­fer­ence is, rice and corn farm­ers ex­pect in­comes from R20,000 to R30,000/ ha; fruit farm­ers ex­pect in­comes of from R200,000 to over one mil­lion pe­sos/ha de­pend­ing on the type of fruit trees and the pro­duc­tion man­age­ment prac­tices. Our ob­ser­va­tion over many years shows that man­gos­teen trees ten years old and above pro­vide in­comes of over R200,000/ ha per har­vest, which is lower com­pared to the in­come in longkong; the in­come from longkong is lower com­pared to the in­come from durian; the in­come from durian is lower than the in­come from pum­melo.

Pum­melo is a mil­lion­aire crop, mean­ing an in­come of over a mil­lion pe­sos per hectare. This is on the as­sump­tion that the plants are pro­vided with proper care and that the price of the fruits is right at har­vest. Among the eas­i­est fruit crops to grow is man­gos­teen, re­quir­ing prac­ti­cally no spray­ing of pes­ti­cides and prun­ing. Longkong and duku are also easy to main­tain with a lit­tle spray­ing to con­trol pests and dis­eases.


I re­call that af­ter fin­ish­ing a doc­toral de­gree at UP Los Baños in the early 1980s, I de­vel­oped a pas­sion for col­lect­ing plants with su­pe­rior ge­netic po­ten­tial from abroad. Then I eval­u­ated the per­for­mance of these plants in my farm. The pas­sion for col­lec­tion was ac­com­pa­nied by the strict dis­ci­pline to save money for buy­ing land ar­eas which I used for plant eval­u­a­tion and nurs­ery.

Ti­tles to these parcels of land are in the names of our eight chil­dren who were sup­ported in col­lege—some with ad­vanced de­grees—by the in­come from fruit farm­ing – five in UP Los Baños, two in Ate­neo Univer­sity, and one in Fa­tima Col­lege in Bu­la­can. My ul­ti­mate mo­tive for pur­su­ing this pas­sion was to mass pro­duce high in­come plants and make them avail­able to farm­ers who would then earn high in­comes to over­come poverty.

I was fas­ci­nated by the suc­cess of trans­plant­ing both rub­ber from Latin Amer­ica and oil palm from Africa to both Malaysia— which pro­vided the farm­ers with high in­comes and helped them over­come poverty. Today, poverty among farm­ers in Malaysia is less than 3%, un­like that of the Philip­pines which is still over 20%.

I started my plant col­lec­tion of su­pe­rior plant types with corn. Two years af­ter my grad­u­a­tion from UPLB, I got a post-doc­tor­ate grant in CIMMYT Mex­ico. Be­fore I re­turned to the Philip­pines, I toured some Latin Amer­i­can coun­tries and the USA. Shortly af­ter my re­turn to the Philip­pines, I vis­ited corn ar­eas of In­dia, Pak­istan, Thai­land, and In­done­sia. Dur­ing those trav­els I

col­lected a small amount of seeds of the best corn va­ri­eties from each coun­try. Then I car­ried on for four years of mul­ti­pli­ca­tion, pu­rifi­ca­tion, and eval­u­a­tion be­fore en­ter­ing these ma­te­ri­als in the Philippine Seed Board trial un­der the aus­pices of the Philippine Seed Board now the Philippine Na­tional Seed In­dus­try Coun­cil.

Five years af­ter that, seven of my many en­tries were ap­proved as Philippine Seed Board as Philippine va­ri­eties. My coun­ter­part who car­ried out tra­di­tional breed­ing at IPB in UPLB man­aged to get the re­lease of only three va­ri­eties. I was in­spired by that suc­cess and so I car­ried out the same work in durian. I vis­ited many farms and re­search sta­tions abroad, gov­ern­ment and pri­vate, do­ing re­search and pro­duc­tion on durian. Many of the more than 60 va­ri­eties I col­lected from In­done­sia, Malaysia, and Thai­land were used for the rapid com­mer­cial­iza­tion of durian in Min­danao since the late 1980s.

Dur­ing those trav­els, I also doc­u­mented the best nurs­ery prop­a­ga­tion and farm pro­duc­tion prac­tices. The adop­tion of the in­no­va­tive prop­a­ga­tion tech­niques be­ing used by nurs­ery op­er­a­tors in Thai­land and Malaysia en­abled us with other prop­a­ga­tors I trained to pro­duce a huge quan­tity of qual­ity plant­ing ma­te­ri­als to sup­port the Philippine durian com­mer­cial­iza­tion pro­gram, lead­ing to the de­vel­op­ment of a very vi­able durian in­dus­try in Min­danao. My suc­cess in corn and durian re­search got rec­og­nized through an Out­stand­ing Na­tional Agri­cul­tur­ist Scientist Award from then Pres­i­dent Fidel V. Ramos in a cer­e­mony held at Mala­cañang Palace.


There are many ob­sta­cles in col­lect­ing plants abroad and bring­ing these in to the Philip­pines for pos­si­ble com­mer­cial cul­ti­va­tion. It has to be car­ried out dis­creetly, some­times se­cretly. For ex­am­ple, a month af­ter I re­ceived the Out­stand­ing Scientist Award in 1987, I filed a leave of ab­sence from the Univer­sity of South­ern Min­danao (USM) where I was em­ployed. I used my prize money from the award to fi­nance an ex­pe­di­tion to the jun­gles of North­ern Malaysia, like the prov­ince of Teran­ganu and South­ern Thai­land like the prov­ince of Narathi­wat, with my pass­port marked “Farmer.” I did a lot of home­work by read­ing many pub­li­ca­tions be­fore go­ing there – study the fruits be­ing grown, lan­guage and cus­toms of the peo­ple, farm­ing prac­tices and gov­ern­ment reg­u­la­tions on trans­port­ing plant and plant parts.

These places, pop­u­lated largely by the Malay, are also known as the cen­ter of the trop­i­cal fruit di­ver­sity in the whole of South­east Asia. Dur­ing my trav­els, I vis­ited farms where I in­tro­duced my­self as a farmer want­ing to learn fruit farm­ing. Dis­creetly, I ob­served the cul­ti­va­tion and per­for­mance of the dif­fer­ent su­pe­rior fruit va­ri­eties to iden­tify the best. Much of my ob­ser­va­tions were recorded at night so as not to draw at­ten­tion to what I was do­ing.

I in­tro­duced my­self as a farmer and not as a gov­ern­ment of­fi­cial be­cause fruit farm­ers in these places are wary of gov­ern­ment of­fi­cials from other coun­tries gath­er­ing tech­nolo­gies and plant­ing ma­te­ri­als. With their fel­low farm­ers from other coun­tries, they are friend­lier and more help­ful. My lit­tle knowl­edge of Ba­hasa Malay en­abled me to in­ter­act with farm­ers in both coun­tries. The Malay spirit of giv­ing and shar­ing is abun­dant in these places, with the key word “sama-sama” as a pop­u­lar ex­pres­sion. This means we are of the same race so we should help each other.

Dur­ing sev­eral trips I was able to iden­tify su­pe­rior plant va­ri­eties and doc­u­ment the farm­ers’ best prac­tices in nurs­ery and field pro­duc­tion. For ex­am­ple, from Thai­land I learned that there are dif­fer­ent types of longkong and that the best longkong fruits are pro­duced by trees prop­a­gated from a sin­gle tree dis­cov­ered by a farmer while clear­ing the jun­gle to plant rice over 200 years ago. When I first vis­ited the tree, I was told by the vil­lagers that I was the first Filipino to have vis­ited the tree. On my re­turn to the coun­try, they of­fered me scions as send-off gift which I grafted to Jolo lan­zones seedlings and planted in my farm. I was priv­i­leged to have planted the first few longkong trees from the sin­gle orig­i­nal best longkong tree in Thai­land is what the Thais proudly la­bel as the sweet­est longkong fruits in the world. The trees I have in my farm are now big­ger than the mother tree I saw in Thai­land.

In re­cent years, my trees were bear­ing from 800 to over 1,000 kg of very sweet fruits which are al­most seed­less. In Malaysia, a re­tired agri­cul­tur­ist turned highly suc­cess­ful farmer showed me the best duku trees planted at the MARDI Teran­ganu Re­search Sta­tion. This agri­cul­tur­ist pointed out that these trees pro­duce the best and sweet­est duku in the world.


Bring­ing in the prop­a­gated plants or plant parts like scions to the Philip­pines is harder than plant col­lec­tion from the best va­ri­eties grown in the best farms in other coun­tries. This is “strictly pro­hib­ited” without ap­proved per­mits from the BPI. At one time I asked a per­mit from BPI to bring in scions of longkong. The of­fi­cerin-change re­fused for too many rea­sons. The most im­por­tant rea­son she ad­vanced was that our lo­cal lan­zones in the Philip­pines is al­ready good and so there is no need for bring­ing in longkong.

I ex­plained the fact that longkong fruits are the sweet­est com­pared to the fruit of our lo­cal va­ri­eties – Paete, Camiguin, and Jolo. Longkong fruits are al­most seed­less with longer self-life which en­abled Thai­land to ex­port to China and other coun­tries. She was not con­vinced. I learned later that this of­fi­cer has planted lan­zones in a three-hectare farm in Paete, La­guna for her re­tire­ment. Cre­ativ­ity and in­no­va­tion are needed to bring plant­ing ma­te­ri­als in­side the coun­try. From the jun­gles of Malaysia, Thai­land, and other places, I got prop­a­ga­tion ma­te­ri­als of hun­dreds of the best and promis­ing va­ri­eties of fruit trees of durian, longkong, duku, and other trop­i­cal fruits. For ex­am­ple, I got the sweet­est tan­ger­ine now be­ing highly com­mer­cial­ized in Malaysia and the seed­less guava now highly com­mer­cial­ized in

Thai­land and many other kinds of fruits.

My col­lec­tion was not lim­ited in other coun­tries. Within the Philip­pines, I trav­elled to as far as Ilo­cos Norte, Palawan, Jolo, and Basi­lan to col­lect promis­ing plant va­ri­eties. I’m con­fi­dent that af­ter the eval­u­a­tion, the Ma­gal­lanes pum­melo of the Philip­pines is the best pum­melo in the world. Ma­gal­lanes pum­melo trees pro­duce fruits with pe­cu­liar invit­ing sweet­ness com­pared to the other pum­melo trees I have ob­served and col­lected scions from for prop­a­ga­tion in the USA, Thai­land, Malaysia, and Viet­nam.

From my plant col­lec­tion, I was able to mul­ti­ply rapidly since the late 1980s plant­ing ma­te­ri­als of durian, man­gos­teen, longkong, duku, pum­melo and oth­ers which are now a part of the Philippine ex­panded fruit in­dus­try. I supplied plant­ing ma­te­ri­als to farm­ers not only in Min­danao but to other farm­ers in Is­abela, Lu­zon, and Palawan. I also trained other nurs­ery op­er­a­tors to mass pro­duce plant­ing ma­te­ri­als.


In the course of my col­lec­tion from other coun­tries, I found out that re­searchers from other coun­tries are car­ry­ing out sim­i­lar col­lec­tions in the Philip­pines. Two ex­am­ples: first is the Philippine maca­puno co­conut be­ing mass pro­duced through tis­sue cul­ture in Thai­land in wider ar­eas than in the Philip­pines. One of the en­trepreneurs was my fel­low stu­dent in plant tis­sue cul­ture at UPLB un­der the late Dr. Emerita de Guz­man.

I learned that af­ter grad­u­a­tion he col­lected maca­puno em­bryos from South­ern Ta­ga­log, mul­ti­plied these, and these be­came the parental source of the mass pro­duced plant­ing ma­te­ri­als in the es­tab­lish­ment of an is­land of pure maca­puno trees in Thai­land. Thai­land is now ex­port­ing semi-pro­cessed maca­puno fruits for ice cream to the Philip­pines.

The sec­ond is Philippine co­conut hy­brid Matag which is now mass pro­duced and cul­ti­vated in larger ar­eas in Malaysia than in the Philip­pines. It is ironic that many Malaysian co­conut farm­ers are ben­e­fit­ing from this hy­brid de­vel­oped by out­stand­ing Filipino sci­en­tists us­ing funds from World Bank loan for which Filipino tax­pay­ers are pay­ing. Matag is com­mer­cial­ized on a lesser scale in the Philip­pines than in Malaysia.


This is a les­son I learned from my son who is now manag­ing our farm. Af­ter fin­ish­ing high school, he wanted to fol­low his five older sib­lings to study at UPLB. I dis­cour­aged him with a joke: don’t take a course in agri­cul­ture if you want to make money in agri­cul­ture. You take busi­ness man­age­ment. Many agri­cul­tur­ists like me don’t know how to make money in agri­cul­ture.

Re­turn­ing af­ter his grad­u­a­tion from busi­ness man­age­ment at Ate­neo Univer­sity, I en­cour­aged him to make the farm more pro­duc­tive and prof­itable. One morn­ing, I saw 50 of my more than 60 durian trees cut and re­placed with Mon­thong, King Kun­yit, and Puyat va­ri­eties. I asked him why he cut those priced va­ri­etal col­lec­tion. He an­swered, “Daddy, I’m just fol­low­ing your in­struc­tion to make the farm more prof­itable so I cut those less pro­duc­tive trees and re­placed them with the most pro­duc­tive ones.” I re­mained si­lent for he was right.


It comes with im­prov­ing the lives of oth­ers, in mak­ing many friends, and in con­tribut­ing to peace. Farm­ers, pro­fes­sion­als, and OCWs come or write to thank us for their high in­comes in fruit farm­ing. Their in­come en­abled them to con­struct bet­ter houses, buy qual­ity house­hold ap­pli­ances, pro­vide bet­ter sup­port to chil­dren in col­lege, or buy brand new four-wheel ve­hi­cles and oth­ers.

Two ex­pe­ri­ences I can’t for­get. One time, six years af­ter we launched the durian ex­pan­sion pro­gram funded by PCARRD, Hadji Ponga Us­man of Parang, Maguin­danao came to my of­fice and told me to come out and see a sur­prise. He showed me with much pride a brand-new four-wheel pick up he bought from the sales of durian fruits har­vested in his five-ha farm which we helped es­tab­lish. He was so happy that his dream to own a brand­new ve­hi­cle came true. I was equally happy.

The sec­ond was when I re­ceived an in­vi­ta­tion from the Chair­man of MILF, Hashim Sala­mat, to visit him in the highly guarded and se­cluded Camp Abubakar. Afraid that some­thing bad might hap­pen to me, my boss, the USM pres­i­dent, did not sign my Travel Or­der and dis­cour­aged me from go­ing to the camp. How­ever I pro­ceeded.

Meet­ing the dis­tin­guished Mus­lim leader, he asked me a fa­vor, say­ing, “Doc, we learned that there many farm­ers you helped who be­come pro­gres­sive in fruit pro­duc­tion. Can you also help our poor farm­ers in Camp Abubakar?” Of course, I helped our Mus­lim broth­ers not only in Camp Abubakar but in many places in Min­danao, thanks to the Philippine gov­ern­ment, which for more than ten years funded the project un­der my lead­er­ship – HELP MC (House­hold En­hance­ment Liveli­hood Pro­gram for Mus­lim Com­mu­ni­ties). My con­tri­bu­tion is small but it provides sat­is­fac­tion with the thought that I have done within my ca­pac­ity to help oth­ers be­come fruit farm­ers.


Many of my plant col­lec­tions are still wait­ing or are in the process of com­mer­cial­iza­tion for high farm yield and in­come. To men­tion a few: 1. Seed­less sweet guava – I found out that this crop is now com­mer­cial­ized in Thai­land and Malaysia. The crop is also well adopted in Min­danao. In Thai­land, guava fruits are pro­duced year­round and ex­ported to many coun­tries. It is also highly saleable in Thai do­mes­tic mar­kets and be­ing served in high class ho­tels as highly nu­tri­tious and health­ful fruit.

2. Sweet tan­ger­ine – Fruits known to fruit grow­ers in Davao Re­gion as “Am­bas­sador” pro­duce very sweet juice. Fruits of three to four pieces pro­duces a glass of sweet juice which does not need ad­di­tional sugar. It now highly com­mer­cial­ized in both Malaysia and Thai­land. It per­forms well as a con­tainer crop in the back­yard.

3. Viet­nam pum­melo – Our field tri­als at TPFN in Kaba­can, Cota­bato show that both the white and red va­ri­eties con­sid­ered by Viet­nam as their best per­form well in Min­danao. The plants don’t re­quire so much pes­ti­cide spray­ing as with the Philippine Ma­gal­lanes pum­melo. It is not also so de­mand­ing in soil type as re­quired by the Ma­gal­lanes pum­melo. It pro­duces sweet fruits in many types of soil where Ma­gal­lanes pum­melo per­forms poorly.

4. Pu­lasan – a na­tive of North­ern Malaysia, this fruit is closely re­lated and look sim­i­lar to rambu­tan, ex­cept that the fruits are big­ger and sweeter than rambu­tan. It is re­spon­sive to prun­ing so it can be main­tained dwarf even as con­tainer plants. The au­thor noted in re­cent visit in Sin­ga­pore that cus­tomers pre­fer the Pu­lu­san over the rambu­tan fruits.

5. La­tex­less and sweet jack­fruit – We have in our col­lec­tion from

Malaysia, Thai­land, and Viet­nam a va­ri­ety which is con­sid­ered as the sweet­est jack­fruit in the world. Trees of these va­ri­eties are early ma­tur­ing in three years and very pro­lific pro­duc­ing fruits which are la­tex­less.

6. Nam Duc Mai mango (NDM) – The best va­ri­ety of NDM in our col­lec­tion pro­duces fruits which are sweeter than the Philippine Carabao mango. It, how­ever, lacks the acid test which make carabao mango the best in the world. NDM fits the Filipino ad­ver­tise­ment “pwede na rin” be­cause NDM re­quires less spay­ing to con­trol pest and dis­eases – three rounds of spray vs. seven round of spray with carabao mango. NDM is re­spon­sive to prun­ing, so the plant can be main­tained a dwarf at high den­sity. The trees are highly pro­duc­tive, pro­duc­ing two rounds of fruit­ing a year as com­pare to once a year or ev­ery two years for carabao mango.

7. Sweet aro­matic co­conut. Co­conut is a fruit com­mod­ity when the young nuts and water are used. It’s a plan­ta­tion crop when the ma­ture nuts are used for co­pra and co­conut oil. The sweet aro­matic co­conut is the lead­ing co­conut va­ri­ety in the pro­duc­tion of co­conut for young nuts or meat with re­fresh­ing and health­ful co­conut water. The ori­gin of the best sweet aro­matic va­ri­ety is traced back to a sin­gle mu­tant

co­conut tree from the prov­ince of Chaisi, Thai­land. Many of the so-called “pan­dan” co­conut are in­fe­rior in pro­duc­tiv­ity and taste. Both the sweet juice and the sweet aro­matic co­conut va­ri­eties young nuts are highly de­manded in the world mar­ket par­tic­u­larly in USA, Europe, Sin­ga­pore, and Aus­tralia. This makes the in­come in the pro­duc­tion of young nuts much higher than with co­pra pro­duc­tion.

The trees are dwarf with semi-erect leaves and are planted in Thai­land at a pop­u­la­tion den­sity of 270 plants/ha. In­creas­ing ar­eas is be­ing planted in Malaysia. The trees ma­ture in less than three years and very pro­lific pro­duc­ing young nuts of over 35,000/ha per year with ad­e­quate fer­til­iza­tion. This means that even the young nuts are sold at R10, a farmer can gen­er­ate an in­come of R350,000/ ha per year.

A pi­o­neer­ing farm in Lanao del Sur pro­duces and sells young nuts at R50/ nut like “hot cakes” ev­ery morn­ing. This farm, how­ever, doesn’t sell plant­ing ma­te­ri­als in com­pli­ance with their agree­ment with the source of the orig­i­nal plant­ing ma­te­ri­als. We shall make plant­ing ma­te­ri­als avail­able in lim­ited quan­tity in our nurs­ery side by side with asex­u­ally prop­a­gated plants of durian like King Kun­yit, Ma­gal­lanes pum­melo, longkong, Nam Duc Mai mango, and oth­ers dur­ing the har­vest sea­son or fruit fes­ti­val this year.

It is hoped that cur­rent and fu­ture re­searchers and fruit farm­ers will learn lessons from our ex­pe­ri­ence in plant col­lec­tion to ben­e­fit our farm­ers.

Fig. 1. Pro­fuse flow­er­ing of fruit trees last April up to the present (May): longkong, man­gos­teen, durian, etc. means abun­dance of fruits in the mar­ket from Au­gust to Oc­to­ber.

Fig. 2. The au­thor re­ceiv­ing the Na­tional Out­stand­ing Agri­cul­tural Scientist Award in Mala­cañang from ex-pres­i­dent Fidel V. Ramos and key DA of­fi­cials in 1997.

Fig. 3. (Clock­wise, from top left) The au­thor with some Filipino fruit farm­ers dur­ing his sub­se­quent visit to over 200 years old orig­i­nal longkong tree in South­ern Thai­land in 1987. A clus­ter of longkong fruit of over two kilo­grams. A fruit­ful longkong tree at TPFN prop­a­gated from the orig­i­nal longkong tree in Thai­land. A Thai lady farmer show­ing the ad­e­quately cared for fruits.

Fig. 4. A Duku Teran­ganu tree at TPFN in Kaba­can, Cota­bato sourced out from Teran­ganu, Malaysia, known to pro­duce the sweet­est duku fruits.

Fig. 5. Seed­less guava trees be­ing mass pro­duced by mar­cot­ting at TPFN, Kaba­can, Cota­bato. The fruits are be­ing sold at the Thai whole­sale mar­ket at THB20 or equiv­a­lent to R35/ kg. Daily, many trucks trans­port seed­less guava fruits from Thai­land to Malaysia, Sin­ga­pore, and other coun­tries.

Fig. 6. A com­mer­cial sweet tan­ger­ine nurs­ery in Northen Malaysia. The Thai va­ri­ety was found to be pro­duc­tive at TPFN, Kaba­can, Cota­bato. The fruits are saleable and af­ford­able. It pro­duces sweet juice for a re­fresh­ing drink.

Fig. 7. (From left) The au­thor with two friends in a me­chan­i­cally pruned pum­melo pro­duc­tion area in Cal­i­for­nia, USA. Pum­melo fruits in the Thai­land mar­ket. None of our col­lec­tion from abroad beats the Philippine pum­melo in pe­cu­liar sweet­ness. It’s also pro­lific, pro­duc­ing over 100,000 fruits/ha per sea­son at TPFN.

Fig. 8. (From left) A pro­duc­tive la­tex­less jack­fruit at TPFN with fruits start­ing at the base of the trees. The fruits pro­duced are of medium size and are la­tex­less.

Fig. 10. (Clock­wise, from top left) The au­thor be­side a highly pro­duc­tive dwarf sweet aro­matic co­conut of three years old at TPFN. Sold in the 1980s as a side­walk drink for thirst in Bangkok, the young nuts are now mass pro­duced, me­chan­i­cally de­husked, and ex­ported to Sin­ga­pore, Aus­tralia, Europe, USA, and oth­ers.

Fig. 9. The NDM fruits - very sweet - sweeter than the carabao mango ex­cept that it lacks the acid taste which is pe­cu­liar to the Philippine mango.

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